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Modern Trainish
Spoken in: Train Village
Total speakers: 11 (revival)
Origin: American English
Language family: Indo-European
:Germanic
::West Germanic
:::Anglo–Frisian
::::Anglic
:::::Lovian English
Writing system: Latin script
Official status
Official language in: nowhere
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: en
ISO 639-2: eng
ISO 639-3: eng
Trivia
More information on language in Lovia

Modern Trainish is an extinct dialect of Lovian English, spoken by a small group of usually older people in and around the Lovian town of Train Village, Sylvania. It shared some characteristics with the present-day Beaver River dialects.

Phonology Edit

Consonants Edit

Consonant phonemes of Modern Trainish
  Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p  b¹ t  d¹ k  ɡ¹ ʔ   
Affricate ts  dz¹ tʃ  dʒ¹
Fricative    ʋ¹ f  v¹ θ  ð¹ s  z¹ ʃ  ʒ¹ χ²  ʁ² h¹²  ɦ¹²
Approximant    w¹³
Lateral l²  ɫ²
  1. Does not occur in coda position.
  2. The pairs /χ/ and /ʁ/, /h/ and /ɦ/, and /l/ and /ɫ/ are freely interchangeable.
  3. /w/ only occurs as an offglide in centralizing triphthongs.

Vowels Edit

Modern Trainish vowels have clearly been influenced by Train Village Dutch. The following table list words with vowels, followed by their Modern Trainish and General American pronunciation.

TRAP /æ/
BATH /æ/
PALM /ɑː/ /ɑː/
LOT /ɑː/ /ɑː/
CLOTH /ɑː/ /ɔ/
THOUGHT /ɒː/ /ɔː/
KIT /ɪ/
FLEECE /iː/ /iː/
DRESS /ɛ/
STRUT /ʏ/ /ʌ/
FOOT /uː/ /ʊ/
GOOSE /yː/ /uː/
FACE /eː/ /eɪ̯/
PRICE /ɛɪ̯/ /aɪ̯/
CHOICE /ɔɪ̯/
GOAT /oː/ /oʊ̯/
MOUTH /ɑʊ̯/ /aʊ̯/
NURSE /øːʁ/ /ɜr/
START /ɑːʁ/ /ɑr/
NORTH /ɒːʁ/ /ɔr/
FORCE /ɒːʁ/ /ɔr/, /oʊr/
NEAR /iːʁ/ /ɪr/
SQUARE /ɛːʁ/ /ɛr/
CURE /uːʁ/ /ʊr/
COMMA /ə/
LETTER /əʁ/ /ər/
HAPPY /i(ː)/ /i/

Monophtongs Edit

Monophthongs of Modern Trainish
  Front Central Back
Close iː · yː   · uː
Near-close ɪ · ʏ
Close-mid eː · øː   · oː
Mid ə
Open-mid ɛ(ː) ·  
Open æ ·   ɑː · ɒː

Characteristics Edit

Modern Trainish had some very typical phonological and grammatical characteristics:

  1. The [r] is pronounced as /ʁ/.
  2. The [ʊ] is pronounced as /uː/.
  3. The /ɑːr/ sound as in car is now pronounced /ɑʊ̯wəʁ/, resulting in the unique car-cower merger.
  4. There is s-deletion for some words like pass, due to this pass is pronounced as pa'.
  5. Dutch and German loanwords like skeapen ("alderman", from Dutch schepen) and manshaft (from German Mannschaft).
  6. The ending sound /aɪt/ in words like bright and write is pronounced like the Dutch ei/ij sound: /ɛɪ̯/.
  7. The sound /ɪdʒ/, which constitutes the -idge word ending, is pronounced /ɪts/.
  8. Differences between male and female words in the case of possessive pronouns like me ("my"), your, and their, which become men, youn, and theirne when preceding a female noun or pronoun.
  9. Neologisms such as hornick (meaning "strong person", derived from horn, as horns are associated with strength).
  10. Some plurals forms, especially words derived from Latin, are different: the plural of center is centra in Modern Trainish, not centers as in Standard English.
  11. College and senate are pronounced /kəˈliːtʃ/ and /səˈneːt/ and exhibit a shifting stress to the last syllable, which is taken from Dutch. Business is pronounced /ˈbɪzinɪs/.

Origin of the nameEdit

Construction
This section is under construction.
Edit

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