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Hurbanovan English
Hubanova Engelsh
Pronunciation: /ɦʏbɑːnˈɔ̃ːʋɑ ʔˈɛŋgəlʃ/
Spoken in: Seal of Hurbanova Hurbanova, Oceana
Total speakers: ~1000
Origin: mostly English, Slovak, Polish and Dutch
Language family: Indo-European
:Germanic
::West Germanic
:::Anglo–Frisian
::::Anglic
:::::Lovian English
Writing system: Latin script
Official status
Official language in: nowhere
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1:
ISO 639-2:
ISO 639-3:
Trivia
Nicknames: Hubanovo, Dèil Dylek
Religion: Atheist, Roman Catholic
More information on language in Lovia
Dialect map of Lovia

Hurbanovan English is marked in orange

Hurbanovan English is a Lovian English dialect that is spoken by inhabitants of Hurbanova, Oceana. It has a dubious linguistic status, due to its history. It originated as a Slovak-English pidgin, evolved into a full creole language, and was then heavily influenced by Lovian English, making it a regional dialect. In the past it has been considered a full language, as a daughter language of Slovak. Now, there is a consensus among linguists about its status as Lovian English variety with great Slovak creole influences. Hurbanovan English is also heavily influenced by other Eastern European languages, such as Polish, and by Dutch and other Lovian English varieties.

It is gradually being replaced by the more prominent East Hills dialect, which is one of the Beaver River dialects.

History Edit

Hurbanovan English originally formed around the year 1900. In the beginning it was a mixture of English, Slovak, Polish, and some other languages, what is now called Oceana and which is still used by a small group of locals. Because it was and is more useful to speak English, the official language of Lovia, many people started to use English as a second or third language. Hurbanovan English as it is known today, is formed as a result of the influences of Oceana, Slovak, and Polish in the Hurbanovos second or third language. The dialect is recently influenced by Dutch, Modern Trainish, and Lovian English characteristics too.

Characteristics Edit

Hurbanovan English is known because of the following things:

  1. Borrowings from Oceana; like nash (problems), tyne (shadow), usile (effort)
  2. -o-, like in harbor, government, becomes -oi-, haboi, goivemen
  3. [t] or [d] at the end of words is sometimes not pronounced, so called t-deletion, dylek (dialect) win (wind)
  4. A vowel can't follow a vowel, it will become a diphtong. dialect -> dylek, idea -> idai
  5. /ɑj/ ([ai]) is pronounced as /ɛi/ and /ɔi/ ([oi]) is pronounced as /ə/
  6. The /r/ is often dropped, except if it is at the beginning of a syllable. har-bor -> ha-boi, train -> tain, where -> wèi. Remember: rain -> rain, hund-red -> hun-rath, hun-d-red -> hun-nath (rarely used). Because of this, also names like King Dimitri I are often pronounced as King Dimiti I, though the [r] still needs to be written.
  7. The /b/ with glottal stop (/ʔ/) disappears. For example: timber, crumble -> timme, cumle.
  8. The existance of /ɫ/. This sound is used when [ll] is written. For example: well, wondefull.

Phonology Edit

Consonants Edit

The following table shows the consonant phonemes found in Hurbanovan English. When consonants appear in pairs, fortis consonants (i.e. aspirated or voiceless) appear on the left and lenis consonants (i.e. lightly voiced or voiced) appear on the right:

Consonant phonemes of Hurbanovan English
  Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p  b t  d k  ɡ ʔ
Affricate 1  dʒ  c
Fricative f  v θ2  ð s  z ʃ  ʒ x3  ɣ4  ç5 h6  ɦ
Approximant r7  ʁ j  ʝ8 ʍ9  w10  ʋ11
Lateral l  ɫ
  1. Though Standard English usually has the /tʃ/ consonant, Hurbanovan English almost always uses /c/ like in many Slavic languages.
  2. /θ/ only occurs in recent loanwords from English. Normally /ð/ is used.
  3. /x/ only occurs in loanwords from Slovak (or sometimes Dutch)
  4. /ɣ/ is only used in interjections.
  5. /ç/ only occurs in loanwords from Slovak or Polish.
  6. Instead of /h/ mostly /ɦ/ is used. /h/ only occurs in recent loanwords.
  7. /r/ only occurs in recent loanwords. /ʁ/ is mostly used.
  8. /ʝ/ only occurs in loanwords from (Belgian) Dutch.
  9. /ʍ/ is used when [wh] is written.
  10. /w/ only occurs in recent loanwords. Normally /ʋ/ is used.
  11. /ʋ/ is used when [w] is written.

Vowels Edit

Monophthongs
Front Central Back
long short long short long short
Close ɪ, i ʏ, y ʊ, u
Mid eː, ɛː e, ɛ ɜː ə ɔː, oː ɔ, o
Open æ æː ʌ ɑː, aː ɑ, ɒ, a

Grammar Edit

Verbs Edit

In Hurbanovan English verbs are conjugated, just like English, on time and person.

Regular verbs are conjugated as following:

to kyse = to cry
Time Person English
I you (sing) he, she, i we you (plural) they
Present simple kyse kyse kyses kyse kyse kyse I cry
Present continuous am kys(e)in' a kys(e)in' is kys(e)in' a kys(e)in' a kys(e)in' a kys(e)in' I am crying
Present perfect èi kyseth èi kyseth èis kyseth èi kyseth èi kyseth èi kyseth I have cried
Past simple kyseth kyseth kyseth kyseth kyseth kyseth I cried
Past continuous ows kys(e)in' ow kys(e)in' ows kys(e)in' ow kys(e)in' ow kys(e)in' ow kys(e)in' I was crying
Past perfect ai kyseth ai kyseth ai kyseth ai kyseth ai kyseth ai kyseth I had cried
Future kyse(e)l kyse(e)l kyse(e)l kyse(e)l kyse(e)l kyse(e)l I will cry
Imperative singular: kyse! plural: kyse(th)! cry!
Gerund kyse(e)n crying

Passive Edit

The passive is almost the same as in normal English. A form of to a (to be) replaces the independent verb and the independent verb will become a past particle. For example: Joseph èi paineth the ca re (Joseph has painted the car red) -> The ca èi bi paineth re (by Joseph) (The car has been painted red (by Joseph)) and The pama can na repai the ca (The mechanic can't repair the car) -> The ca can na a repaith (by the pama) (The car can't be repaired (by the mechanic))

Irregular and strong verbs Edit

Except for strong verbs, Standard English only has nine really irregular verbs, to be, to have, shall, may, must, can, will, to go and to do. Only those verbs show irregularities within the time. It isn't he bes, haves, shalls, mays, dos and so on, but he is, has, shall, may, does. The verbs can (can), mèi (may), shall (shall), and will (will) are conjugated on the same way like the English verbs, so it's he can, mèi, shall, will. to èi (to have) is a regular verb, but it's strong however. The verbs to a (to be), meh (must), to dew (to do) and to gew (to go) are also irregular, but show a different conjugation. The third person singular of meh is mast, for to dew and to gew it's dèis and gèis respectively. The conjugation of to a is as following.

to a = be
Time Person English
I you (sing) he, she, i we you (plural) they
Present simple am a is a a a I am
Present continuous am an' a an' is an' a an' a an' a an' I am being
Present perfect èi bi èi bi èis bi èi bi èi bi èi bi I have been
Past simple ows ow ows ow ow ow I was
Past continuous ows an' ow an' ows an' ow an' ow an' ow an' I was being
Past perfect ai bi ai bi ai bi ai bi ai bi ai bi I had been
Future sel / bude sel / bude sel / budes sel / bude sel / bude sel / bude I will be
Imperative singular: a! plural: a(th)! be!
Gerund a(he)n being

Most strong verbs follow the same sound shift rules like many nouns. to leave - left - left is to leave - lef - lef, for example. When difference will be threathened some strong verbs can become weak. For example; to build - built - built is to buil - builth - builth. Sometimes the spelling is different, to read - read - read is to rea - reh - reh, reh sounds the same as read (past particle) except for the /d/. This difference in spelling was made to make it easier to understand the difference between past and present.

Adjectives Edit

Adjectives are not conjugated, they've only got a so called base form. So for masculine words it's the bèi man (the bad man), for feminine words it's the bèi fèi (the bad woman), for neuter words it's the bèi chil (the bad child) and for plural words it's the bèi chils (the bad children). Adjectives are placed in front of the noun. The comparison is easier than the English system. Where in English there are strict rules whether you should use suffixes (-er, -est) or more and most, in Hurbanovan English both are possible. For example:

System Base form Comparitive Superlative Translation
1 bèi bèia bèias bad
2 bèi mow bèi mose bèi bad
1 beautifull beautifulla beautifullas beautiful
2 beautifull mow beautifull mose beautifull beautiful

Adverbs Edit

Adverbs are made using adjective + l, for example bad - badly is bèi - bèil. There are hardly any exceptions. Even though the adverbs of hard and fast are hard and fast in English, in Hurbanovan English people use hadl and fasl. Adjectives ending on -l or -ll get an extra -e-, like dull -> dullel and ol (old) -> olel.

Nouns Edit

In Hurbanovan English nouns are conjugated by number and size. The standard for each noun is to have four different forms in conjugation. Some exceptions do exist however.

Group Singular Plural Diminutive singular Diminutive plural Translation
1 noin noins noiny noinies noun
2 hois hoises hoisy hoisies house
3 stannath stannathes stannathy stannathies standard
4 ty ties tiesy tiesies time
5 tee tees teesy teesies tree
6 dèi dèis dèiny dèinies day
7 Lovai Lovais Lovainy Lovainies Lovia
8 goose geese geesy geesies goose
9 tomato tomatoes tomatoty tomatoties tomato
10 moise mice miçy miçies mouse
11 tooth teeth teethy teethies tooth
12 woh woes woddy woddies word
13 bih boes burdy burdies bird

Pronouns Edit

Example Edit

The Kingdom of Lovai o Lovai is a soivereign palaimentary constitushenal monachy in the Nothen Pacific Oshen. The capital an mose populois city of Lovai is callth Noble City. The populashen of this cointy is mosel of Noth American an Europain orige. Thèi a aboi 20,000 inhabitans. The reignin' monach is King Dimitri I. Lovai is a foime membe of the Uniteth Wiki Nashes.

Language vs Dialect Edit

As with many minority languages, the language versus dialect battle is also commonly practiced with Hurbanovan English. Though the Oceana dialect is usually considered to be a language, because of its major differences in both grammar and vocabulary, Hurbanovan English is not. This is because of the enormous regularity within the sound changes, like t-deletion and r-dropping, its mutual understandability with English, the grammar does not show significant differences to English and the language yet does not have any state or recognisition anywhere.

Relation to other Lovian English languages Edit

Hurbanovan English quite fits well in the row of Lovian English languages. Modern Trainish also is one of the Lovian English dialects. The Lovian English word actrice could also be found in Hurbanovan English as actice. The proverb to be a crumble compared to the cake is quite related to to èi a cumle instea of a complee cuek (literally: to have a crumble instead of a complete cake) One word, which is often described to be the most famous Lovian word, naranja, is, strangely, hardly used in Hurbanovan English. But, like all other Lovian languages, also Hurbanovan English has major influences from Dutch in both grammar and vocabulary.

Proverbs Edit

Hurbanovan English is a proverb-rich dialect.

Proverb (Hurbanovan English) Literal translation Meaning Origin
to èi a cumle instea of a complee cuek to have a crumble instead of a complete cake to be a crumble compared to the cake Lovian English (?)
to gi fie a chance to give fire a chance to play with fire Slovak
Shon the Lovain John the Lovian a regular Lovian Slovak
to luck the ca of the tee to watch the cat out of the tree to investigate something before you act Dutch
hèi tees catch mose win high trees catch the most wind people of a high rank get many comments on what they do or don't do Dutch
i lucks it lucks it goes well/perfect Slovak/Dutch
fa-, like in fadicul fat-, fat difficult really, really difficult Slovak/Polish
i is as unundestandable as physics it is as ununderstandable as physics it doesn't make any sense --
you ana me you're not me everybody is different Slovak
thèi is a kink in the cable there is a sharp bow in the cable there is a hitch somewhere Dutch
to see something thoigh the fingas to see something through the fingers to overlook something Dutch
dèis of bloo, swea an teas days of blood, sweat and tears days of hard working Dutch
the bulle was thoigh the chuch the bullet was through the church the decision was made Dutch

See also Edit

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