| Hurbanovan English|
|Spoken in:||Hurbanova, Oceana|
|Origin:||mostly English, Slovak, Polish and Dutch|
|Language family:|| Indo-European|
|Writing system:||Latin script|
|Official language in:||nowhere|
|Regulated by:||no official regulation|
|Nicknames:||Hubanovo, Dèil Dylek|
|Religion:||Atheist, Roman Catholic|
Hurbanovan English is a Lovian English dialect that is spoken by inhabitants of Hurbanova, Oceana. It has a dubious linguistic status, due to its history. It originated as a Slovak-English pidgin, evolved into a full creole language, and was then heavily influenced by Lovian English, making it a regional dialect. In the past it has been considered a full language, as a daughter language of Slovak. Now, there is a consensus among linguists about its status as Lovian English variety with great Slovak creole influences. Hurbanovan English is also heavily influenced by other Eastern European languages, such as Polish, and by Dutch and other Lovian English varieties.
Hurbanovan English originally formed around the year 1900. In the beginning it was a mixture of English, Slovak, Polish, and some other languages, what is now called Oceana and which is still used by a small group of locals. Because it was and is more useful to speak English, the official language of Lovia, many people started to use English as a second or third language. Hurbanovan English as it is known today, is formed as a result of the influences of Oceana, Slovak, and Polish in the Hurbanovos second or third language. The dialect is recently influenced by Dutch, Modern Trainish, and Lovian English characteristics too.
Hurbanovan English is known because of the following things:
- Borrowings from Oceana; like nash (problems), tyne (shadow), usile (effort)
- -o-, like in harbor, government, becomes -oi-, haboi, goivemen
- [t] or [d] at the end of words is sometimes not pronounced, so called t-deletion, dylek (dialect) win (wind)
- A vowel can't follow a vowel, it will become a diphtong. dialect -> dylek, idea -> idai
- /ɑj/ ([ai]) is pronounced as /ɛi/ and /ɔi/ ([oi]) is pronounced as /ə/
- The /r/ is often dropped, except if it is at the beginning of a syllable. har-bor -> ha-boi, train -> tain, where -> wèi. Remember: rain -> rain, hund-red -> hun-rath, hun-d-red -> hun-nath (rarely used). Because of this, also names like King Dimitri I are often pronounced as King Dimiti I, though the [r] still needs to be written.
- The /b/ with glottal stop (/ʔ/) disappears. For example: timber, crumble -> timme, cumle.
- The existance of /ɫ/. This sound is used when [ll] is written. For example: well, wondefull.
The following table shows the consonant phonemes found in Hurbanovan English. When consonants appear in pairs, fortis consonants (i.e. aspirated or voiceless) appear on the left and lenis consonants (i.e. lightly voiced or voiced) appear on the right:
|Plosive||p b||t d||k ɡ||ʔ|
|Affricate||tʃ1 dʒ c|
|Fricative||f v||θ2 ð||s z||ʃ ʒ||x3 ɣ4 ç5||h6 ɦ|
|Approximant||r7 ʁ||j ʝ8||ʍ9 w10 ʋ11|
- Though Standard English usually has the /tʃ/ consonant, Hurbanovan English almost always uses /c/ like in many Slavic languages.
- /θ/ only occurs in recent loanwords from English. Normally /ð/ is used.
- /x/ only occurs in loanwords from Slovak (or sometimes Dutch)
- /ɣ/ is only used in interjections.
- /ç/ only occurs in loanwords from Slovak or Polish.
- Instead of /h/ mostly /ɦ/ is used. /h/ only occurs in recent loanwords.
- /r/ only occurs in recent loanwords. /ʁ/ is mostly used.
- /ʝ/ only occurs in loanwords from (Belgian) Dutch.
- /ʍ/ is used when [wh] is written.
- /w/ only occurs in recent loanwords. Normally /ʋ/ is used.
- /ʋ/ is used when [w] is written.
|Close||iː||ɪ, i||yː||ʏ, y||uː||ʊ, u|
|Mid||eː, ɛː||e, ɛ||ɜː||ə||ɔː, oː||ɔ, o|
|Open||æ||æː||ʌ||ɑː, aː||ɑ, ɒ, a|
In Hurbanovan English verbs are conjugated, just like English, on time and person.
Regular verbs are conjugated as following:
|to kyse = to cry|
|I||you (sing)||he, she, i||we||you (plural)||they|
|Present simple||kyse||kyse||kyses||kyse||kyse||kyse||I cry|
|Present continuous||am kys(e)in'||a kys(e)in'||is kys(e)in'||a kys(e)in'||a kys(e)in'||a kys(e)in'||I am crying|
|Present perfect||èi kyseth||èi kyseth||èis kyseth||èi kyseth||èi kyseth||èi kyseth||I have cried|
|Past simple||kyseth||kyseth||kyseth||kyseth||kyseth||kyseth||I cried|
|Past continuous||ows kys(e)in'||ow kys(e)in'||ows kys(e)in'||ow kys(e)in'||ow kys(e)in'||ow kys(e)in'||I was crying|
|Past perfect||ai kyseth||ai kyseth||ai kyseth||ai kyseth||ai kyseth||ai kyseth||I had cried|
|Future||kyse(e)l||kyse(e)l||kyse(e)l||kyse(e)l||kyse(e)l||kyse(e)l||I will cry|
The passive is almost the same as in normal English. A form of to a (to be) replaces the independent verb and the independent verb will become a past particle. For example: Joseph èi paineth the ca re (Joseph has painted the car red) -> The ca èi bi paineth re (by Joseph) (The car has been painted red (by Joseph)) and The pama can na repai the ca (The mechanic can't repair the car) -> The ca can na a repaith (by the pama) (The car can't be repaired (by the mechanic))
Irregular and strong verbs Edit
Except for strong verbs, Standard English only has nine really irregular verbs, to be, to have, shall, may, must, can, will, to go and to do. Only those verbs show irregularities within the time. It isn't he bes, haves, shalls, mays, dos and so on, but he is, has, shall, may, does. The verbs can (can), mèi (may), shall (shall), and will (will) are conjugated on the same way like the English verbs, so it's he can, mèi, shall, will. to èi (to have) is a regular verb, but it's strong however. The verbs to a (to be), meh (must), to dew (to do) and to gew (to go) are also irregular, but show a different conjugation. The third person singular of meh is mast, for to dew and to gew it's dèis and gèis respectively. The conjugation of to a is as following.
|to a = be|
|I||you (sing)||he, she, i||we||you (plural)||they|
|Present simple||am||a||is||a||a||a||I am|
|Present continuous||am an'||a an'||is an'||a an'||a an'||a an'||I am being|
|Present perfect||èi bi||èi bi||èis bi||èi bi||èi bi||èi bi||I have been|
|Past simple||ows||ow||ows||ow||ow||ow||I was|
|Past continuous||ows an'||ow an'||ows an'||ow an'||ow an'||ow an'||I was being|
|Past perfect||ai bi||ai bi||ai bi||ai bi||ai bi||ai bi||I had been|
|Future||sel / bude||sel / bude||sel / budes||sel / bude||sel / bude||sel / bude||I will be|
Most strong verbs follow the same sound shift rules like many nouns. to leave - left - left is to leave - lef - lef, for example. When difference will be threathened some strong verbs can become weak. For example; to build - built - built is to buil - builth - builth. Sometimes the spelling is different, to read - read - read is to rea - reh - reh, reh sounds the same as read (past particle) except for the /d/. This difference in spelling was made to make it easier to understand the difference between past and present.
Adjectives are not conjugated, they've only got a so called base form. So for masculine words it's the bèi man (the bad man), for feminine words it's the bèi fèi (the bad woman), for neuter words it's the bèi chil (the bad child) and for plural words it's the bèi chils (the bad children). Adjectives are placed in front of the noun. The comparison is easier than the English system. Where in English there are strict rules whether you should use suffixes (-er, -est) or more and most, in Hurbanovan English both are possible. For example:
|2||bèi||mow bèi||mose bèi||bad|
|2||beautifull||mow beautifull||mose beautifull||beautiful|
Adverbs are made using adjective + l, for example bad - badly is bèi - bèil. There are hardly any exceptions. Even though the adverbs of hard and fast are hard and fast in English, in Hurbanovan English people use hadl and fasl. Adjectives ending on -l or -ll get an extra -e-, like dull -> dullel and ol (old) -> olel.
In Hurbanovan English nouns are conjugated by number and size. The standard for each noun is to have four different forms in conjugation. Some exceptions do exist however.
|Group||Singular||Plural||Diminutive singular||Diminutive plural||Translation|
- The Kingdom of Lovai o Lovai is a soivereign palaimentary constitushenal monachy in the Nothen Pacific Oshen. The capital an mose populois city of Lovai is callth Noble City. The populashen of this cointy is mosel of Noth American an Europain orige. Thèi a aboi 20,000 inhabitans. The reignin' monach is King Dimitri I. Lovai is a foime membe of the Uniteth Wiki Nashes.
Language vs Dialect Edit
As with many minority languages, the language versus dialect battle is also commonly practiced with Hurbanovan English. Though the Oceana dialect is usually considered to be a language, because of its major differences in both grammar and vocabulary, Hurbanovan English is not. This is because of the enormous regularity within the sound changes, like t-deletion and r-dropping, its mutual understandability with English, the grammar does not show significant differences to English and the language yet does not have any state or recognisition anywhere.
Relation to other Lovian English languages Edit
Hurbanovan English quite fits well in the row of Lovian English languages. Modern Trainish also is one of the Lovian English dialects. The Lovian English word actrice could also be found in Hurbanovan English as actice. The proverb to be a crumble compared to the cake is quite related to to èi a cumle instea of a complee cuek (literally: to have a crumble instead of a complete cake) One word, which is often described to be the most famous Lovian word, naranja, is, strangely, hardly used in Hurbanovan English. But, like all other Lovian languages, also Hurbanovan English has major influences from Dutch in both grammar and vocabulary.
Hurbanovan English is a proverb-rich dialect.
|Proverb (Hurbanovan English)||Literal translation||Meaning||Origin|
|to èi a cumle instea of a complee cuek||to have a crumble instead of a complete cake||to be a crumble compared to the cake||Lovian English (?)|
|to gi fie a chance||to give fire a chance||to play with fire||Slovak|
|Shon the Lovain||John the Lovian||a regular Lovian||Slovak|
|to luck the ca of the tee||to watch the cat out of the tree||to investigate something before you act||Dutch|
|hèi tees catch mose win||high trees catch the most wind||people of a high rank get many comments on what they do or don't do||Dutch|
|i lucks||it lucks||it goes well/perfect||Slovak/Dutch|
|fa-, like in fadicul||fat-, fat difficult||really, really difficult||Slovak/Polish|
|i is as unundestandable as physics||it is as ununderstandable as physics||it doesn't make any sense||--|
|you ana me||you're not me||everybody is different||Slovak|
|thèi is a kink in the cable||there is a sharp bow in the cable||there is a hitch somewhere||Dutch|
|to see something thoigh the fingas||to see something through the fingers||to overlook something||Dutch|
|dèis of bloo, swea an teas||days of blood, sweat and tears||days of hard working||Dutch|
|the bulle was thoigh the chuch||the bullet was through the church||the decision was made||Dutch|