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Federal Law January 2010

The Federal Law printed (January 2010)

The Federal Law is the law for the entire nation of Lovia. Subjects such as (inter)national transport, foreign affairs, healthcare, education, culture, language, sports, agriculture, fishery, industry, finance, economy and justice are described in law. The Federal Law is divided over several Law Books:

Social Law Book

Arrow right Main article: Social legislation in Lovia.

Article 1 - Charity Fund Act

  • Article 1 - Charity Fund Act[1]
    1. Each year in December the Ministry of Finance shall donate one percent of its gross profits to the Federal Charity Fund. The extend of the contribution shall be discussed in the First Chamber and voted in the Second Chamber.
    2. If the proposed amount of the contribution is accepted by the Second Chamber, the Federal Charity Fund receives the funds. The Federal Charity Fund proposes a charitable trust to be granted the funds. If the Minister of Finance accepts the proposition, the funds shall be transferred into the account of this aforesaid charitable trust.
    3. In the event of serious disasters in Lovia or other parts in the world, extra financial support can be granted. The Chairman of the Federal Charity Fund and the Minister of Finance determine the amount of this supplementary aid.
    4. Any Lovian Citizen, company or organization is entitled to donate to the Federal Charity Fund. The financial support will be spent on positive means only.

Article 2 - Health and Charity Campaigns Act

  • Article 2 - Health and Charity Campaigns Act[2]
    1. Any non-profit campaign that is privately organized, putting effort in the realization of one or more of the topics listed below, shall be able to apply for financial and/or infrastructural support at the Ministry of Commerce.
    2. Campaigns eligible for government support are:
      1. Campaigns which counteract, try to prevent or raise awareness about abusive consumption of food, alcoholic beverages, tobacco, and/or narcotics.
      2. Campaigns which counteract, try to prevent or raise awareness about violence, hatred, and/or discrimination.
      3. Campaigns which promote or give advice about a healthy lifestyle.
      4. Campaigns which raise support, either by means of financial contributions or other means, for charitable causes in and outside Lovia.
      5. Campaigns which promote or give advice about a proper education.
      6. Campaigns which promote or give advice about the use of contraceptives.
    3. Any campaign applying for government support shall make use of factual information in support of its goal.

Article 3 - Labor Law Act

  • Article 3 - Labor Law Act[3]
    1. Every adult Lovian that earns his/her own income through labor as an employee can only do so by engaging in an employment contract.
      1. An employment contract is an agreement in which one party (the employee) commits himself or herself to work for another party (the employer) in exchange for a financial compensation.
      2. An employment contract is only valid when:
        1. Both parties are at least 16 and have permission from a parent or legal advisor when they are not yet 18.
        2. The function, working hours, working conditions, wage and duration of the contract are confirmed in a written agreement.
        3. Both parties agree on a voluntary basis and the volition is not deficient.
        4. It comprises the presence of a valid subject and a lawful cause.
      3. An employment contract is terminated:
        1. When the time of the duration of the employment contract as defined in the contract itself is expired.
        2. When both parties agree upon the termination of the employment contract under conditions specified and agreed upon by both parties.
        3. When at least one of the parties can not possibly fulfill his/her obligations due to conditions independent of that party his/her will.
        4. When one of the parties declares the employment contract terminated by issuing the dismissal.
          1. When the employer terminates the contract this way, the employee can demand a financial compensation of three month's salary.
          2. When the employee terminates the contract this way, the employer can demand the contract stands for up to one more week.
        5. When a judge declares the failure of at least one of the parties sufficient to terminate the employment contract as a whole.
          1. If declared terminated by a judge, the payment of a financial compensation for the duped party can be imposed on the party responsible for the failure.
          2. Conversely, the duped party has no obligation to pay any form of compensation.
        6. When a certain event enclosed in the employment contract as dissolving condition takes place.
        7. When the employee dies or is missing for more than one week.
          1. The following events cannot be taken up as dissolving conditions: pregnancy, parenthood, marriage, reaching pension age and confiscation of the wage.
    2. After being employed under a labor contract for 40 years, an employee can retreat from the labor market, thus becoming pensioned.
      1. From the age of 55, all employees enter pension regardless of the years they have been under a labor contract.
      2. Pensioned people are legally entitled to a pension that is provided to them by the Social Security Fund.
    3. The hours an employee has to work are to be enclosed in an employment contract to make it valid.
      1. These hours are limited to eight hours a day and forty hours a week.
        1. All labor performed outside these limits are regarded as overtime.
        2. All labor performed from 8 p.m. to 6 a.m. is regarded as night labor.
        3. All labor performed on Saturdays, Sundays or recognized holidays is regarded as weekend labor.
      2. If an employee is put to work he/she has to work at least three successive hours.
      3. After six successive hours of work an employee has the right to have half an hour of rest.
      4. Each employee has the right to have eleven successive hours of rest a day.
    4. The conditions under which an employee performs his/her job have to be enclosed in an employment contract to make it valid.
    5. The conditions under which an employee performs his/her job may only pose the minimal acceptable threat to his/her safety, health or welfare.
    6. An employer is responsible for the consequences of his/her decisions on the employment conditions of his/her employees. He/she must take the following measures:
      1. The prevention of risks and the evaluation of risks that could not be prevented within an acceptable margin.
      2. Giving priority to safety over profit when making decisions that affect the employment conditions.
      3. Informing the employee over possible risks in the light of his/her duty at his/her recruitment.
    7. An employee has to act in agreement with his/her training and given instructions to take care of his/her safety. He/she has to take the following measures:
      1. Make correct use of the provided machinery, tools and materials that may pose a threat to the employee's safety.
      2. Make correct use of the provided personal protective equipment.
      3. Follow all safety instructions provided by the employer.
    8. The wage is defined by the employment contract but the following provisions are a minimum:
      1. The minimum wage is 14 Lovian dollars an hour, or 10 dollars for employees younger than 18.
      2. A compensating differential of 20% is to be given for labor at night, weekend labor, dangerous work or irregular hours.
      3. The wages as defined can be altered according to the inflation upon Congressional decision.
      4. The wages of all employees are protected by the following provisions:
        1. The employee can ordain his/her own wage without restrictions from the employer.
        2. All wages paid to Lovian residents are to be paid in US dollars unless he/she is employed in a foreign country, in which case he/she can demand payment in the coin of that country.
        3. Up to a fifth of the wage can be paid in kind if this is desirable for the nature of the job and the employee was notified of this in advance.
        4. All wages are to be paid at least twice a month with no more than 16 days between each payment.
      5. Certain payments can legally be subtracted from the wage before payment.
      6. These subtractions should not comprise more than a fifth of the total wage unless when the employee did deliberate damage or quits before the entire debt is redeemed.
      7. Payments that can legally be subtracted from the wage before payment are:
        1. Contributions for the Social Security Fund which are imposed by Congress through the taxation policy.
        2. Fines which are owed to the employer and are imposed by the agreed labor regulation of the employment contract.
        3. Damages which are owed to the employer and inflicted during the exercise of the job for that employer.
        4. Advance payments already made by the employer with agreement of the employee.
    9. An employee is permitted leave from work if he/she is unable to perform his/her job due to a physical disease or mental condition.
      1. An employee who is absent due to disease has right to full payment if he/she notifies his/her employer of the situation.
        1. The employer can demand proof of a medical opinion or ask for a second opinion of a competent examiner appointed by the employer.
        2. 60% of all wages paid to an employee absent due to disease for more than 30 successive days are paid by the Social Security Fund.
      2. If the absence is caused by an occupational injury or disease, the employer has to pay the full wage for the entire duration of the absence.
        1. All employers are obliged to take insurance against occupational injuries and diseases, either privately or through the Social Security Fund.
        2. All employers are obliged to take all reasonable measures against occupational injuries and diseases.
    10. Extra regulation can be imposed through organized collective bargaining between unions and sectors.
      1. The extra regulation is only valid when all parties have agreed on a voluntary basis and the volition is not deficient.
      2. The extra regulation may concern vacations, recruitment, working hours, wages and working conditions.
      3. The extra regulation may not violate the marginal boundaries and regulations of the labor law.

Article 4 - Tobacco Regulations Act

  • Article 4 - Tobacco Regulations Act[4]
    1. The term "tobacco" is used for an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. Under "using tobacco" the Lovian government understands: smoking tobacco in the form of cigarettes or cigars, using it in smoking pipes and water pipes, or consuming it in the form of snuff tobacco or chewing tobacco.
    2. The use of tobacco is forbidden by the Tobacco Regulations Act of the Federal Law, supported by Congress:
      1. In all governmental buildings, including federal properties, state properties and properties of the city, town, neighborhood, or hamlet.
      2. For all persons aged under 18 years.
      3. In the close environment of persons aged under 12 years.
      4. In the close environment of persons aged older than 12 years and under 18 years, unless permission is given by the minor.
    3. The use of tobacco is discouraged by the Congress, in all public places, especially those where people consume food and beverages, meaning there is no strict prohibition on the use.
    4. Every Lovian person, company, or organization who owns or manages a building, room, or public place has the right to prohibit the use of tobacco within that space, supported by Local Police authorities in case of disobedience.

Article 5 - Alcohol Consumption Regulations Act

  • Article 5 - Alcohol Consumption Regulations Act[5]
    1. The term "alcoholic beverage" covers every drink that contains ethanol, commonly known as alcohol. Alcohol is a psychoactive drug that has a depressant effect. A high blood alcohol reduces attention and slows reaction speed. Alcoholic beverages can be addictive.
    2. Alcoholic beverages shall not be sold to persons who have not yet reached the age of 16 years.
      1. Both the buyer and the person selling the alcoholic beverage to a person who has not yet reached the age of 16 years are considered to be violating the Federal Law.
    3. Spirits (unsweetened, distilled, alcoholic beverages that have an alcohol content of at least 20% ABV) shall not be sold to persons who have not yet reached the age of 18 years.
      1. Both the buyer and the person selling the alcoholic beverage to a minor are considered to be violating the Federal Law.
    4. The use of alcoholic beverages is forbidden by the Alcohol Regulations Act of the Federal Law, supported by Congress:
      1. In all governmental buildings, including federal properties, state properties and properties of the city, town, neighborhood, or hamlet.
      2. In all educational institutions during class hours, unless the purpose of a particular course is to educate about alcoholic beverages.
        1. The use of alcoholic beverages in this case is restricted to the absolute minimum. Courses will be dismissed by the Royal Educational Aims Council when this law is violated.
      3. By any person whose professional occupation it is to transport other people. No alcoholic beverages shall be consumed during the period starting two hours before the job officially commences, and until the moment the job officially ends.
      4. By any person whose professional occupation it is to safeguard other people's security. No alcoholic beverages shall be consumed during the period starting two hours before the job officially commences, and until the moment the job officially ends.
      5. By any person during job hours.
    5. Every Lovian person, company, or organization who owns or manages a building, room, or public place has the right to prohibit the use of alcoholic beverages within that space, supported by Local Police authorities in case of disobedience.
    6. A high blood alcohol content is referred to as drunkenness.
      1. Each person operating a vehicle while under the influence of alcohol violates the Federal Law.
        1. When a driver's blood alcohol concentration is measured to be 0.05% or more at the moment of control and within half an hour of the moment when this person was halted by police authorities, this person is considered to have driven under the influence of alcohol, and has thus violated the Federal Law.
        2. A person transporting other people as a professional occupation may not have a blood alcohol concentration of 0.01% during job hours.
      2. Public drunkenness is prohibited by the Federal Law.
        1. Each person in a public space whose behavior is uncommon and who does not seem to be able to think clearly and act accordingly and whose blood alcoholic concentration is measured to be 0.08% or more, is considered to be under the influence of alcohol, and can be arrested by police authorities.

Article 6 - Primary Education Act

  • Article 6 - Primary Education Act[6]
    1. Primary education is the educating of children in a school or privately, by qualified teachers, in order to provide them with the apt knowledge and skills to go to secondary education.
    2. Primary education is provided in primary or elementary schools, unless the child is taught privately.
      1. Primary schools can be operated privately, that is by an individual or an organization, or publicly, that is by a neighborhood, hamlet, town, city, state or by the federal state.
      2. Primary schools have to appoint teachers that are qualified to teach the subjects they are asked to teach.
        1. All primary school teachers must have obtained a single Lovian Certificate of Education Level 2 or above or a Supplementary Lovian Certificate of Education Level 2 or above.
      3. Primary schools can turn down pupils only in special cases, these being the inability to provide education to a pupil with a particular problem, the inability to properly provide education for a pupil due to a lack of resources or if a pupil has proven to be unable to behave according to previous schools' regulations. In no other cases, pupils shall be denied access without consultation with the Ministry of Education.
    3. Primary schools provide general and basic education to a child. All subjects taught must be Lovian Certificates of Education and may not be Supplementary Lovian Certificate of Education.
      1. These subjects should be taught at least three hours per week, during the six years of primary education:
        • English (level 1)
        • Mathematics (level 1)
        • Arts and Crafts (level 1)
      2. These subjects should be taught at least two hours per week, during the six years of primary education:
        • Physical Education (level 1)
        • Social Education (level 1)
        • The school must also choose a level 1 language subject to provide other than English that must be taught at least two hours a week, from a list which the State Government will provide.
      3. These subjects should be taught at least one hour per week, during the six years of primary education:
        • History (level 1)
        • Geography (level 1)
        • Science (level 1)
        • Computing (level 1)
      4. Primary schools may also provide more languages than the two mandatory subjects to pupils. The specific additional languages a pupil is taught however will be selected by the pupil themselves from the list of additional languages the school provides beyond the two mandatory language subjects.
      5. Primary schools are free to choose to provide more classes of any of these subjects, or to provide other level 1 subjects considered valuable, in order to provide a minimum of twenty-two hours of class, every week of the schoolyear. Primary schools may provide more classes beyond the twenty-two hour minimum but none beyond the maximum of thirty hours of class, every week of the schoolyear.
      6. There shall be no doctrinal classes in primary schools.
        1. In a course called 'Religions of the world', children may be taught about religions. If the school wishes to teach this subject, all major religions should be brought to attention, as well as a non-religious attitude.
        2. Primary schools and their teachers may not try to convince children of a certain religious or political point of view, nor can they make any pupil exercise a religious act, unless the pupil and/or the parents agree with taking doctrinal classes.
    4. These rules apply for the arrangement of the timetable:
      1. A break of at least 10 minutes is compulsory between every two hours; more often is allowed.
      2. There shall be no classes on Sunday.
      3. There shall be no classes between 7 PM and 7 AM.
      4. There must be a lunch break every day, of at least an hour, between noon and 2 PM.
    5. Private education, by a qualified teacher, can be provided. In this case, the same rules apply.
    6. Every child residing in Lovia has to receive six years of primary education, beginning in the schoolyear during which the child will reach the age of 6 years.
      1. Only if a qualified psychologist and the pupil's teacher find it appropriate for the pupil to skip a schoolyear and continue education with older pupils, and if the parents agree on this, the pupil may skip a schoolyear.
      2. Every pupil has to receive primary education until the schoolyear during which the pupil will reach the age of 12, except in the case mentioned above.
    7. In case a primary school does not provide the kind of education described in this article, the Minister of Education or the Royal Educational Aims Council can decide to shut down the school until the service provided does qualify. In the meantime, the Ministry of Education must provide education to the pupils of that school, by allowing them instant pro-tempore access to another school.
      1. The Royal Educational Aims Council is a council under the Ministry of Education, consisting of three educational specialists who decide on the secondary education curriculum, and who can close a school (of any level) if it does not qualify with the requirements.
        1. The following three persons are members of the council: the Minister of Education, the Prime Minister, and the Minister of Labour as the pupils' and students' welfare watchdog.
        2. The Rector of Blackburn University is added to the council as its fourth member only when the council is looking into a matter directly concerned with the higher educational system.
    8. States are allowed to create legislation concerning special needs and religious education, and education in another language (special education).
      1. The same rules apply to special education as to regular institutions.
      2. Regular education must always remain available to pupils.
        1. All settlements with more than 5,000 inhabitants must have at least one regular primary school.
        2. A state must always have at least one regular primary school.
    9. All primary schools within Lovia are funded by a School Voucher system.
      1. A School Voucher system operates via a system of grants from the Ministry of Education to a parent for each child they have at the age of primary education to pay for their child's tuition within Lovia.
        1. Parents are granted an amount towards each child's education, this grant is not given to the parents instead the Ministry of Education must create documents that shall be used to register where their child is currently receiving tuition so that the grant may be given directly to their child's school.
          1. The current grant per child is L$11,000.
          2. These documents must be simple, easy to understand and must not be misleading, there must also be a way to trace who filled in the documents.
        2. To obtain the grant, at least one parent must be a Lovian citizen.
        3. Parents wealthy enough to make tuition provisions for their child without state assistance should do so.
          1. Parents earning over L$100,000 collectively will only be entitled to half of the grant.
          2. Parents earning over L$250,000 collectively will not be entitled to any of the grant.
        4. Primary schools may not charge a tuition that is higher than the grant.
    10. Primary schools must register certain details in a primary school register.
      1. A primary school must register:
        • Their name.
        • The address of the school.
        • The number of pupils they are currently teaching a primary education to.
        • The number of teachers they are currently employing to teach primary education.
        • The tuition fee the school is charging per child in primary education.
        • The date of registration.
      2. These registers are managed on a state by state basis by the relevant state government.
        1. Further details may be requested by the state government.
      3. The details must be renewed every half-year since the date of registration.
        1. If they are not renewed then the school shall be given a weeks grace period to fill in the details along with a notification from the state government, if it fails to renew details after the grace period then it is no longer considered able to provide education to students and must be shut down until it renews the details. In the meanwhile the Ministry of Education must provide education to the students of that school.
      4. Only primary schools that are registered in the primary school register may be considered primary schools by law.

Article 7 - Secondary Education Act

  • Article 7 - Secondary Education Act[7]
    1. Secondary education is the educating of adolescents in a school or privately, by qualified teachers, in order to provide them with the apt knowledge and skills to lead a life in a modern society and in order to be able to continue studying in university or take on an apprenticeship.
      1. After having completed the schoolyear of their 16th birthday a child may choose to not continue ordinary school and instead pursue an apprenticeship, should they secure an apprenticeship then they may continue their education under their employer as an apprentice, if they at any point lose their apprenticeship they must at the soonest possible date rejoin a school.
    2. Secondary education is provided in high schools or secondary schools, unless the adolescent is taught privately.
      1. Secondary schools can be operated privately, that is by an individual or an organization, or publicly, that is by a neighborhood, hamlet, town, city, state or by the federal state.
      2. Secondary schools have to appoint teachers that are qualified to teach the subjects they are asked to teach.
        1. All secondary school teachers must have obtained a single Lovian Certificate of Education Level 4 or above or a Supplementary Lovian Certificate of Education Level 4 or above.
      3. Secondary schools can turn down pupils only in special cases, these being the inability to provide education to a pupil with a particular problem, the inability to properly provide education for a pupil due to a lack of resources or if a pupil has proven to be unable to behave according to previous schools' regulations. In no other cases, pupils shall be denied access without consultation with the Ministry of Education.
    3. Secondary schools provide two tiers of education, one to a child from the age of 12 until 16 and another to a child of the ages of 17 and 18 should the child choose to continue in school:
      1. Secondary schools provide a general education to a child up until the age of 16. All subjects taught must be Lovian Certificates of Education and may not be Supplementary Lovian Certificate of Education.
        1. These subjects should be taught at least four hours per week, during the first four years of secondary education:
          • Mathematics (level 2)
        2. These subjects should be taught at least two hours per week, during the first four years of secondary education:
          • English (level 2)
          • Literature (level 2)
          • Art (level 2)
          • Physical Education (level 2)
          • Social Education (level 2)
          • Technology (level 2)
          • Science (level 2)
          • The school must also choose a level 2 language subject to provide other than English that must be taught at least two hours a week, from a list which the State Government will provide.
        3. These subjects should be taught at least one hour per week, during the first four years of secondary education:
          • History (level 2)
          • Geography (level 2)
          • Computing (level 2)
        4. Secondary schools may also provide more languages than the two mandatory subjects to pupils between the ages of 12 and 16. The specific additional languages a pupil is taught however will be selected by the pupil themselves from the list of additional languages the school provides beyond the two mandatory language subjects.
        5. Secondary schools are free to choose to provide more classes of any of these subjects, or to provide other level 2 subjects considered valuable, in order to provide a minimum of thirty hours of class, every week of the schoolyear. Secondary schools may provide more classes beyond the thirty hour minimum but none beyond the maximum of forty hours of class, every week of the schoolyear.
      2. Secondary schools provide an advanced education to a child of the age of 17 and 18. All subjects taught must be Lovian Certificates of Education and may not be Supplementary Lovian Certificate of Education.
        1. These subjects should be taught at least five hours per week, during the last two years of secondary education:
          • English (level 3)
          • Mathematics (level 3)
          • The school must also choose a level 3 language subject to provide other than English that must be taught at least five hours a week, from a list which the State Government will provide.
        2. Secondary schools must provide a wide selection of level 3 subjects for pupils to choose from to study. Pupils may choose to study a minimum of three extra subjects to study to bring their total time within school to 30 hours of class, every week of the schoolyear. Pupils may choose to study two more subjects beyond the thirty hour minimum, bringing their total time within school to 40 hours of class, every week of the schoolyear.
        3. Each additional subject a pupil chooses to study must be taught for five hours each week.
      3. Doctrinal classes may be provided in secondary schools by the school itself, if wished.
        1. There shall be no more than one hour of doctrinal class per week.
        2. The content of doctrinal classes, in which the teacher teaches a particular religious or political world view, can be chosen by the school and teacher.
          1. There shall be no doctrinal classes about extremist views; that is: no far-right, far-left, extremist religious, violent or extreme nationalist views can be taught. If needed, the Royal Educational Aims Council and the Minister of Education can dismiss a doctrinal course.
        3. A student is allowed not to follow a doctrinal course provided by a secondary school, if he or she does not want to take this course. In order to skip these classes, the student has to notify the school direction and stay on school property during the courses.
        4. A course called 'Religions of the world', or any course similar to it, is not considered a doctrinal course.
        5. No tests and exams shall be taken for these courses.
    4. These rules apply for the arrangement of the timetable:
      1. A break of at least 10 minutes is compulsory between every two hours; more often is allowed.
      2. There shall be no classes on Sunday.
      3. There shall be no classes between 7 PM and 7 AM.
      4. There must be a lunch break every day, of at least an hour, between noon and 2 PM.
    5. Private education, by a qualified teacher, can be provided. In this case, the same rules apply.
    6. Every child residing in Lovia has to receive at least four years of secondary education, beginning in the schoolyear after which the adolescent has finished his primary education successfully. Additionally should a child not be employed as an apprentice, they must continue to receive education until they have completed the educational year in which they are 18.
      1. Only if a qualified psychologist and the student's teacher find it appropriate for the student to skip a schoolyear and continue education with older students, and if the parents agree on this, the student may skip a schoolyear.
    7. Secondary schools that do not provide the kind of education described in this article, the Minister of Education or the Royal Educational Aims Council can decide to shut down the school until the service provided do qualify. In the meanwhile the Ministry of Education must provide education to the students of that school.
    8. States are allowed to create legislation concerning special needs and religious education, and education in another language (special education).
      1. The same rules apply to special education as to regular institutions.
      2. Regular education must always remain available to pupils.
        1. All settlements with more than 10,000 inhabitants must have at least one regular secondary school.
        2. A state must always have at least one regular secondary school.
    9. All secondary schools within Lovia are funded by a School Voucher system.
      1. A School Voucher system operates via a system of grants from the Ministry of Education to a parent for each child they have at the age of secondary education to pay for their child's tuition within Lovia.
        1. Parents are granted an amount towards each child's education, this grant is not given to the parents instead the Ministry of Education must create documents that shall be used to register where their child is currently receiving tuition so that the grant may be given directly to their child's school.
          1. The current grant per child is L$15,000.
          2. These documents must be simple, easy to understand and must not be misleading, there must also be a way to trace who filled in the documents.
        2. To obtain the grant, at least one parent must be a Lovian citizen.
        3. Parents wealthy enough to make tuition provisions for their child without state assistance should do so.
          1. Parents earning over L$100,000 collectively will only be entitled to half of the grant.
          2. Parents earning over L$250,000 collectively will not be entitled to any of the grant.
        4. Secondary schools may not charge a tuition that is higher than the grant.
    10. Secondary schools must register certain details in a secondary school register.
      1. A secondary school must register:
        • Their name.
        • The address of the school.
        • The number of pupils they are currently teaching a secondary education to.
        • The number of teachers they are currently employing to teach secondary education.
        • The tuition fee the school is charging per child in secondary education.
        • The date of registration.
      2. These registers are managed on a state by state basis by the relevant state government.
        1. Further details may be requested by the state government.
      3. The details must be renewed every half-year since the date of registration.
        1. If they are not renewed then the school shall be given a weeks grace period to fill in the details along with a notification from the state government, if it fails to renew details after the grace period then it is no longer considered able to provide education to students and must be shut down until it renews the details. In the meanwhile the Ministry of Education must provide education to the students of that school.
      4. Only secondary schools that are registered in the secondary school register may be considered secondary schools by law.

Article 8 - Sports and National Team Act

  • Article 8 - Sports and National Team Act[8]
    1. Lovian boules is recognized as the national sport of Lovia.
      1. Congress hereby commits itself to protect the sport and its culture as national heritage.
    2. A national sports team is a team that performs a single sport at a high level and represents Lovia during international contests, championships and friendly games.
      1. The Lovian National Sevens Team is the fully recognized national Rugby Sevens team of Lovia.
      2. Congress can grant a sports team this title and duty by a normal majority.
      3. The ownership of a national sports team remains with its original proprietor.
      4. Congress will provide in a part of the expenses of this team to guarantee regular practice and performance.
      5. Congress may revoke this grant by a normal majority when the team does not represent Lovia correctly, with dignity and without wrongful conduct.
      6. Congress bars players who abuse narcotics, or any other substance that illegally improves a player's game, or have abused narcotics in the past twelve months from participating in a national sports team.
        1. Drugs that are prescribed by a fully qualified doctor of medicine may be used.
          1. At all times, other doctors of medicine may question the prescription and file for re-examination. If two other fully qualified medical professionals find the prescription unnecessary or harmful and therefore illegal, the sportsperson may no longer use the prescribed drugs.
    3. Non-governmental governing bodies in Lovian sports may bar players from playing:
      1. On reasonable suspicion of drug abuse;
      2. On ethical grounds, that is when a player acts not appropriately and without dignity, or when he or she has violated the law.
    4. Minors, that is people who have not yet reached the age of eighteen, must be a member of a sports player's union to protect them from wrongful conduct.
    5. Minors and adults are both restricted from sports if the temperatures outside are harmful to health.
      1. Minors may not participate in physical training or games when the outside temperature is below -20 degrees Celsius (-4 °F) or above 32 degrees Celsius (90 °F).
      2. Adults may not participate in physical training or games when the outside temperature is below -25 degrees Celsius (-13 °F) or above 38 degrees Celsius (100 °F).

Article 9 - Act on the Fight Against Poverty

  • Article 9 - Act on the Fight Against Poverty[9]
    1. To fight poverty among the inhabitants of Lovia the Board on the Fight Against Poverty (BFAP) is erected under the Act on the Fight Against Poverty, supported by Congress and the Ministry of Labour.
      1. The composition of the board is as follows: the Minister of Labour, three Lovian citizens appointed by the Minister of Labour, and the Prime Minister.
      2. The board will perform the following tasks:
        1. The evaluation and financial support of (voluntary) organizations that aid the poor in Lovia;
        2. The creation and management of facilities to give shelter and food to the homeless in Lovia;
        3. The creation and management of a Center for Societal Welfare (CSW) in Lovia.
          1. The CSW may grant payments to the poor in exchange for supervision.
          2. The CSW may appoint social residences with low rent to people in need.
      3. The board will work together closely with other initiatives that fight poverty, both private and public.
    2. The Ministry of Education will foresee a Learning Point.
      1. The Learning Point offers cheap basic education according to the low doorstep principle.
      2. The Learning Point will focus on guiding Lovians who have not received proper and full education.
      3. The Learning Point may be an instrument for the CWS to aid its people.

Article 10 - Social Security Act

  • Article 10 - Social Security Act[10]
  1. The Social Security System is a collection of mechanisms that serve to fight poverty and social injustice to the benefit of society as a whole.
  2. The Social Security System is made up of the following institutions:
    1. The Social Security Fund, which is responsible for all transfer payments that are made under the Social Security System.
      1. The Social Security Fund is funded by contributions that are withheld from the wages in accordance to Lovia's tax policy.
        1. If the Social Security Fund faces a shortage its budget will be straightened by a financial injection from the federal budget.
      2. The Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Health, and the Ministry of Labour operate the Social Security Fund jointly.
        1. The Ministry of Finance is responsible for the income side of the Social Security Fund.
        2. The Ministries of Health and Labour are responsible for the spending side of the Social Security Fund.
      3. Receiving payments from the Social Security Fund without being entitled to them is considered social fraud.
        1. When social fraud is determined, the Social Security Fund can withhold further payments.
        2. Payments received without being entitled to them can be retrieved by court order.
        3. Social fraud as deliberate deception can punished with a compensating fee by court order.
        4. When payments are received from the Social Security Fund without being entitled to them, this includes:
          1. Applying to the Social Security Fund with false information so that one can receive money without a need.
          2. Receiving and keeping payments from the Social Security Fund when one does not need the money, whether by accident or purpose.
          3. Using another person to receive payments from the Social Security Fund illegally.
          4. Using money from the Social Security Fund mostly or entirely for personal gain instead of personal necessity.
          5. Other reasons may be defined by a judge.
    2. The National Healthcare Service, which is responsible for providing free medically necessary assistance to everyone the Lovian state is responsible for.
      1. The National Healthcare Service operates under the Ministry of Health which is responsible for the working.
      2. The National Healthcare Service runs all government hospitals, recognizes medical personnel and refunds medicine.
      3. The National Healthcare Service may advise Congress over price regulation concerning the pharmaceutical sector.
    3. The Social Assistance Service, which is responsible for legally and morally assisting the beneficiaries of the Social Security Fund.
      1. The Social Assistance Service operates under the Ministry of Health which is responsible for the working.
      2. The Social Assistance Service is to appoint all medical and social personal that observe the beneficiaries.
      3. The Social Assistance Service can appoint social housing if it is provided through Congressional clause.
    4. The Agency for Labour Inspection, which is to ascertain the compliance of employers and employees to the determinations of the labor law.
      1. The Agency for Labor Inspection operates under the Ministry of Labour which is responsible for the working.
      2. The Agency has the task to control whether employers and employees respect the social regulations imposed upon them.
      3. The Agency is obliged to take a case to court when it finds a violation; the agency can not declare a verdict on its own.
  3. The transfer payments the Social Security System is charged with are monthly payments related to sick leave, deficiencies, unemployment, pensions and special benefits.
    1. All wages payed to an employee default by disease for more than 30 successive days are payed for 60% by the Social Security Fund.
      1. When paying, the Social Security Fund can ask for a second opinion of a competent examiner appointed by the Social Assistance Service.
      2. When an employee receives the sick leave benefit for six consecutive months, he or she must switch to the deficiency benefit.
    2. All people who can not take part in activities on the labor market due to a physical or mental deficiency are entitled to a deficiency benefit of 1200$.
      1. The obstructing deficiency needs to be determined sufficient by a competent examiner appointed by the Social Assistance Service.
      2. People with a limited deficiency might be assigned to communal services if a competent examiner deems this to be desirable.
    3. All unemployed people that are capable of working are entitled to a minimum income of 1200$ provided by the Social Security Fund.
      1. A person receiving the unemployment benefit is obliged to undertake reasonable effort in trying to find a new job.
      2. A person receiving the unemployment benefit might be assigned to communal services by an appointed social worker.
    4. All pensioned people are legally entitled to a pension that is provided to them by the Social Security Fund.
      1. The legal minimum for a pension is 800$, regardless of how many years the receiver has been under an employment contract.
      2. A compensating differential of 10% is payed for every 10 years the receiver has been under an employment contract.
    5. The Social Assistance Service can foresee benefits for large families, single parents and people who lost their supporting partner.
      1. The amount of income and dependent people within the family is to be taken into consideration when determining the benefit.
      2. Such benefits are only to be granted to beneficiaries who's income is below the mandatory minimum income of 1200$.
      3. Any beneficiary can apply for such a benefit with a social worker appointed by the Social Assistance Service.

Article 11 - Abortion Regulations Act

  • Article 11 - Abortion Regulations Act[11]
  1. Abortus Provocatus (referred to hereafter as abortion), defined as a willingly induced termination of pregnancy before fetal viability, is considered legal only when:
    1. Carried out by a qualified physician, registered in a hospital recognized by the Ministry of Health.
    2. Permission has been given by the executing physician and at least one other, non-involved physician.
    3. Executed no sooner than two weeks after the first consultation.
    4. Executed within the first twelve weeks of the pregnancy, except in circumstances considered in section 2.
    5. One or more of the following:
      1. The mother has been impregnated against her will.
      2. The risk to the physical health of the mother is considered to be one hundred times greater than the average risk of childbirth.
      3. The fetus is considered to be inviable before the twenty-fifth week of the pregnancy.
    6. In every case, the mother has to give her approval to carry out the abortion.
  2. Abortion after the first twelve weeks of the pregnancy is considered legal only when:
    1. Carried out by a qualified physician, registered in a hospital recognized by the Ministry of Health.
    2. Permission has been given by the executing physician and at least two other, non-involved physicians.
    3. Executed no sooner than seven days after the first consultation.
    4. One or more of the following:
      1. The risk to the physical health of the mother is considered to be one hundred times greater than the usual risk of childbirth.
      2. The fetus is considered to be inviable before the twenty-fifth week of the pregnancy.
    5. In every case, the mother has to give her approval to carry out the abortion.
  3. Before carrying out an abortion, the executing physician must always take the following measures:
    1. To notify the patient of all health risks involved with the abortion of pregnancy.
    2. To remind the parent of several other possibilities for undesired children.
      1. Any alternatives to abortion must be legal and comply with the Adoption and Orphanage Act.
    3. To ensure themselves of the patient's desire to carry out the abortion.
  4. If an abortion is carried out illegally, the following consequences may follow:
    1. The executing physician will have their medical license revoked.
    2. The executing physician will be liable to prosecution for murder and held responsible for the costs of the operation.
    3. The mother will be fined $10,000.

Article 12 - Educational Boards Act

  • Article 12 - Educational Boards Act[12]
    1. An educational board is a registered organisation that creates curricula for schools and is responsible for the testing, examination and marking of the students learning their curricula and then the distribution of the results. They are also granted the power to award Lovian Certificates of Education (LCE) and Supplementary Lovian Certificates of Education (SLCE) to students.
    2. Educational boards may award LCE's and SLCE's to students with an assigned grade attached to the certificate.
      1. A Lovian Certificate of Education is a full course in a subject, ensuring that the student learning the curriculum related to the LCE understands the full knowledge of the subject over the full time of the educational level it is at.
        1. Grades assigned to LCE's are related to the percentage achieved in the combined tests, examinations or coursework of the subject.
          1. Pass grades are as follows:
            • A*, which is awarded should a student get 95% or above in the combined tests, examinations or coursework of the subject.
            • A, which is awarded should a student get 90% or above and below 95% in the combined tests, examinations or coursework of the subject.
            • B, which is awarded should a student get 80% or above and below 90% in the combined tests, examinations or coursework of the subject.
            • C, which is awarded should a student get 70% or above and below 80% in the combined tests, examinations or coursework of the subject.
            • D, which is awarded should a student get 60% or above and below 70% in the combined tests, examinations or coursework of the subject.
            • E, which is awarded should a student get 50% or above and below 60% in the combined tests, examinations or coursework of the subject.
          2. Fail grades are as follows:
            • F, which is awarded should a student get 40% or above and below 50% in the combined tests, examinations or coursework of the subject.
            • U, which is awarded should a student get below 40% in the combined tests, examinations or coursework of the subject.
          3. When a student fails they receive a letter with their fail grade and their percentage achieved in various exams and tests in order to help them understand and improve for the future rather than an LCE.
      2. A Supplementary Lovian Certificate of Education is a short course in a subject, ensuring that the student learning the curriculum related to the SLCE understands the basic and general knowledge of the subject but does so over a quarter of the time of the full course.
        1. Grades assigned to SLCE's are related to the percentage achieved.
          1. Pass grades are as follows:
            • A*, which is awarded should a student get 97.5% or above in the combined tests, examinations or coursework of the subject.
            • A, which is awarded should a student get 95% or above and below 97.5% in the combined tests, examinations or coursework of the subject.
            • B, which is awarded should a student get 90% or above and below 95% in the combined tests, examinations or coursework of the subject.
            • C, which is awarded should a student get 85% or above and below 90% in the combined tests, examinations or coursework of the subject.
            • D, which is awarded should a student get 80% or above and below 85% in the combined tests, examinations or coursework of the subject.
            • E, which is awarded should a student get 75% or above and below 80% in the combined tests, examinations or coursework of the subject.
          2. Fail grades are as follows:
            • F, which is awarded should a student get 70% or above and below 85% in the combined tests, examinations or coursework of the subject.
            • U, which is awarded should a student get below 70% in the combined tests, examinations or coursework of the subject.
          3. When a student fails they receive a letter with their fail grade and their percentage achieved in various exams and tests in order to help them understand and improve for the future rather than an SLCE.
    3. Subjects will be provided at various levels by Educational Boards. Subjects can either be defined by law or by certain governmental institutions.
      1. Level 1 subjects are aimed at giving a wide and basic education, in cases where the subject is applicable to needing to teach using resources that might concern the state, nation and world, examples and resources concerning all three of these should be used. These are aimed to be taught in primary school by a person with at least a level 2 qualification to children aged 6-12, over the course of 6 years.
      2. Level 2 subjects are aimed at giving a general and advanced education, in cases where the subject is applicable to needing to teach using resources that might concern the state, nation and world, examples and resources concerning only two or all three should be used. These are aimed to be taught in secondary school by a person with at least a level 4 qualification to adolescents aged 12-16, over the course of 4 years.
      3. Level 3 subjects are aimed at giving a focused and advanced education, in cases where the subject is applicable to needing to teach using resources that might concern the state, nation and world, examples and resources concerning only one, two or all three may be used. These are aimed to be taught in secondary school by a person with at least a level 4 qualification to adolescents aged 16-18, over the course of 2 years.
      4. Level 4 subjects are aimed at giving a highly focused and advanced education, the aim of this education should be to prepare the student for a career in the subject they are taking. These are aimed to be taught in university by a person with at least a level 5 qualification to adults aged 18-21, over the course of 3 years.
      5. Level 5 subjects are aimed at building on a persons focused and advanced education, the aim of this education should be to advance the students knowledge further in the subject they are taking. These are aimed to be taught in university by a person with at least a level 6 qualification to adults aged 21 and over.
      6. Level 6 subjects are aimed at further building on a persons focused and advanced education, the aim of this education should be to advance the students knowledge further in the subject they are taking. These are aimed to be taught in university by a person with at least a level 7 qualification to adults aged 21 and over.
      7. Level 7 subjects are aimed at building on a persons focused and advanced education at an experimental level, the aim of this education should be to advance the students knowledge further in the subject they are taking. These are aimed to be taught in university by a person with at least a level 7 qualification to adults aged 21 and over.
      8. Subjects that educational boards may provide at specific levels are any of those defined in law and those recognised by state governments on a state by state basis with the advice of the Ministry of Education.
      9. Additionally the Ministry of Education may recognise subjects nationally with advice from Congress.
    4. Educational boards must provide tests, examinations or coursework or a combination of those for students to complete as part of a subject to act as proof that they understand the full knowledge of the subject.
    5. Educational boards may not refuse to provide a tutor, school or university access to a subject unless it does not have the proper resources to administrate the subject.
    6. Educational boards may charge no more than a certain amount of Lovian Dollars per student per subject and must charge the same rate for all subjects it provides on the same level.
      1. Educational boards may charge up to L$50 for level 1 subjects.
      2. Educational boards may charge up to L$60 for level 2 subjects.
      3. Educational boards may charge up to L$125 for level 3 subjects.
      4. Educational boards may charge up to L$750 for level 4-7 subjects.
    7. Educational boards must register certain details in an educational board register.
      1. An educational board must register:
        • Their name.
        • The address of the educational board.
        • The number of courses they are currently offering.
        • The number of schools using the subjects they are offering.
        • The fee the educational board is charging per student per subject at each level.
        • The date of registration.
      2. These registers are managed on a state by state basis by the relevant state government.
        1. Further details may be requested by the state government.
      3. The details must be renewed every half-year since the date of registration.
        1. If they are not renewed then the educational board shall be given a weeks grace period to fill in the details along with a notification from the state government, if it fails to renew details after the grace period then it is no longer considered able to provide courses and correct administration of said courses it may be shut down until it renews the details. In the meanwhile the Ministry of Education must provide support to the schools using courses from the educational board that has been shut down.
      4. Only Educational boards that are registered in the educational board register may be considered educational boards by law.

Environmental Law Book

Arrow right Main article: Environmental legislation in Lovia.

Article 1 - National Parks and Monuments Act

  • Article 1 - National Parks and Monuments Act[13]
    1. The National Park Service is a governmental organization under the Ministry of Environment.
      1. National parks are natural or geological areas, usually, but not always declared and owned by the federal government, protected from most human development and pollution. A National Park can simply be designated after a request from the Service and after the owner's acceptance.
      2. A National Park is controlled, managed and protected by the National Park Service. The Chairman of the NPS is chosen by the Minister of Environment. Park rangers are people charged with protecting and preserving the National Parks. Every person working in a National Park (except for strictly commercial goals) is a park ranger.
      3. National Park rules are set up by the NPS itself or the parks can use their own and more often relevant rules.
      4. Park rangers can arrest people in case of serious violations for less than 10 hours. The police can take over if the violation needs to be punished or trialled.
    2. The National Monument Service is a governmental organization under the Ministry of Culture.
      1. National Monuments are buildings, structures, bridges, statues or other monuments which are very important for Lovia, as a tourist attraction and/or as historical evidence. These buildings have to belong to the federal government.
      2. A National Monument is controlled, managed and protected by the National Monument Service. The Chairman of the NMS is chosen by the Minister of Culture.

Article 2 - Green Energy Act

  • Article 2 - Green Energy Act[14]
    1. The terms "sustainable energy" and "green energy" cover the provision of energy from sources that are not expected to be depleted in a time frame relevant to our Earth's inhabitants and that do not produce radioactive waste.
    2. Within the Kingdom of Lovia, all energy produced, imported and/or exported must be fully sustainable by 2012.
    3. The Lovian government reserves the right to sanction corporations that distribute unsustainable energy.

Article 3 - Lovia Recycles Act

  • Article 3 - Lovia Recycles Act[15]
    1. Recycling in Lovia is mandated by the Federal Government, and both implemented and managed by Lovia's states.
    2. Lovia will employ a common collection system for different types of recycling via a number of bins. These include:
      1. a green bin, for food waste going for composting
      2. a red bin, for plastics, glass and metal
      3. a blue bin, for paper and cardboard
      4. States may add other bins for further recycling including batteries, electronics, hazardous materials and other items not recyclable within the current three bins.
    3. The collection of recyclable materials for the red, green, blue and other potential bins shall be done as for garbage collection.
      1. States are free to determine dates for collection, as well as the frequency, so long as it is done no less than twice per month.
    4. All states will also set up and operate at least one designated collection point for recycling or disposing of items not recyclable via home collection, operating alongside curbside collection.
      1. These collection points may be used to dispose or recycle batteries, electrical and electronic items, hazardous items, construction material, raw materials and large or uncommon items which cannot be properly collected at the curbside.

Criminal Law Book

Arrow right Main article: Criminal legislation in Lovia.

Article 1 - Federal Police Act

  • Article 1 - Federal Police Act[16]
    1. To ensure the people's safety, the Federal Police is erected under the Federal Police Act, supported by Congress and the Ministry of Defense.
    2. The Federal Police is the unitary police force in Lovia, and is therefore charged with all of the following duties:
      1. Local, state and federal police investigations and operations.
      2. Investigations and operations that intend to fight international safety threats to Lovians.
      3. Customs activities.
    3. In all its activities, the Federal Police must strive to increase the safety in Lovia.
      1. The Federal Police strives to save lives when people and animals are in danger.
      2. The Federal Police strives not to cause material or any other form of damage, unless it is unquestionably required to perform its core activities.
      3. The Federal Police may never abuse violence, unless unquestionably required to save lives, or any illegal method to obtain information or to successfully do its operations.
    4. The Federal Police has delegations in all states and is always prepared to assist local authorities.
    5. The Federal Police is headed by the Federal Police Commissioner, appointed by the Minister of Defense.
    6. The Federal Police is able to set up special units for crime prevention, investigation, training, traffic and many other special tasks.

Article 2 - Local Police Act (repealed)

  • Article 2 - Local Police Act[17]
    1. To ensure the people's safety every Lovian state is obliged to erect a local safety authority, under the Local Police Act, supported by Congress and the Ministry of Defense.
    2. Every Lovian state is obliged to erect a local police system and is free to choose which system to apply. Several options are available:
      1. State Police, a safety authority working within the state boundaries and handling all issues within that state. This authority is managed by the state government.
      2. City and Town Police, several safety authorities working within their city or town and handling all issues within and in the surroundings of that location. These authorities are managed by local governments.
      3. A combination of these two system. Every town and city has its own Town or City Police, handling all issues within that location, and one State Police, administering local authorities and handling all issues outside towns and cities or issues that concern multiple locations. In that case, local governments manage the Town and City Police, while state government manages the State Police.
    3. Whenever issues transgress state borders the local safety authorities are obliged to hand over the case to the Federal Police. Cooperation whenever asked is required and withholding information on that case is strictly forbidden.
    4. The local police authority is headed by the local Police Chief, appointed by the State Governor.

Article 3 - Firearms Act

  • Article 3 - Firearms Act [18]
  1. Ownership and use of firearms by any person within the Kingdom of Lovia is prohibited;
    1. With the exception of Federal Police officers, and with any other exception enshrined in the national laws of the nation.
    2. With the exception of hunters, who must obtain a license in order to hunt living animals for food, recreation, or trade, using a firearm.
      1. Licenses can be obtained with the Minister of Defense, who has the authority over the Federal Police and who has knowledge of the practices and potential dangers of firearms to the people's welfare.
      2. Licenses can only be granted to hunters
        1. who have taken shooting lessons at a Federal Police bureau and who have passed the associated exam, in which perfect knowledge of the Firearms Act, unproblematic fine motor skill, the acquired shooting skills, and the hunter's uncompromised vision are required and shall be tested;
        2. who have reached the age of twenty-one on the day the license is to be granted;
        3. who have their legal residence in Lovia;
        4. who have the intent to use it only for hunting, be it recreational or professional;
        5. who have not been convicted or arrested within the last two years before the license is to be granted;
        6. whose firearm is fit for hunting; thus only handguns, rifles and shotguns are allowed.
      3. Licenses must be obtained for each firearm and may only be registered to one person.
      4. Licenses are immediately repealed, together with the firearms in the possession of the hunter, when he or she is arrested or convicted, or otherwise involved in a police or court case. It must be regranted without further ado if the arrest or involvement is proven to have been without proper cause.
      5. Licenses cannot be sold or given to somebody else. Licenses always adhere to the person who has passed the exam and who has met with the legal requirements.
      6. Hunters are legally bound to register with the Minister of Defense, at least one week in advance, if and when they are willing to hunt in group, that is three or more hunters, all of which must have a license to carry a firearm, and no more than twice a month.
    3. The Federal Police is authorized to confiscate all firearms without proper license found within the Kingdom of Lovia.
      1. If a firearm is known or suspected to be used by somebody else than its lawful owner and the person who has obtained the license, then the Federal Police is authorized to confiscate the firearm and all other firearms registered to or used by both persons, and start an investigation in the matter.
  2. A private militia is any organization, either formally and nominally military or not, that is characterized by the presence of firearms, and that is not operated by the federal government of Lovia to ensure the nation's safety.
  3. The organization of a private militia is prohibited within the Kingdom of Lovia.
    1. It is unlawful to establish or participate in such a militia, as well as to allow them to exist and exercise their activities on one's premises.
    2. It is unlawful for militias established outside of Lovia, or led by foreigners, to operate or organize activities in Lovia.
    3. Private security services are not allowed to let their officers bear firearms.
  4. It is prohibited for officers of foreign police forces and armies to bring firearms into Lovia, or to otherwise obtain or use firearms. Exceptions may only be granted by Congress.

Public Law Book

Arrow right Main article: Public legislation in Lovia.

Article 1 - Settlement Act

  • Article 1 - Settlement Act[19]
    1. Lovian settlements are classified into one of these five groups: hamlets, villages, neighborhoods, towns, and cities.
    2. The population of a settlement is considered to be the number of people who have a primary residence within the built up areas.
    3. Congress must recognize a settlement by a simple majority before the settlement can become an official hamlet, village, neighborhood, town, or city of Lovia.
    4. A hamlet is a very small settlement that does not border the urban areas of a more populous settlement.
      1. A hamlet must:
        1. Have a population of at least ten and at most five hundred.
          1. If a hamlet's population drops below ten, it is no longer classified as a settlement.
          2. If a hamlet's population rises above five hundred, it is classified as a village.
      2. A hamlet may officially affiliate itself with a larger town or city if Congress recognizes this affiliation by a simple majority.
      3. A hamlet may have a new, bordering, distinct urban area become a neighborhood of the hamlet if Congress recognizes this affiliation by a simple majority.
      4. If a hamlet borders a less populous settlement, the smaller settlement may become a neighborhood of the hamlet if Congress recognizes this affiliation by a simple majority.
    5. A village is a small settlement that does not border the urban areas of a more populous settlement.
      1. A village must:
        1. Have a population of at least five hundred and at most five thousand.
          1. If a village's population drops below five hundred, it is classified as a hamlet.
          2. If a village's population rises above five thousand, it is classified as a town.
      2. A village may officially affiliate itself with a larger town or city if Congress recognizes this affiliation by a simple majority.
      3. A village may have a new, bordering, distinct urban area become a neighborhood of the village if Congress recognizes this affiliation by a simple majority.
      4. If a village borders a less populous settlement, the smaller settlement may become a neighborhood of the village if Congress recognizes this affiliation by a simple majority.
    6. A town is a mid-sized settlement that does not border the urban areas of a more populous settlement.
      1. A town must:
        1. Have a population of at least five thousand and at most twenty thousand.
          1. If a town's population drops below five thousand, it is classified as a village.
          2. If a town's population rises above twenty thousand, it is classified as a city.
      2. A town may have a village or hamlet affiliate with the town if Congress recognizes this affiliation by a simple majority.
      3. A town may have a new, bordering, distinct urban area become a neighborhood of the town if Congress recognizes this affiliation by a simple majority.
      4. If a town borders a less populous settlement, the smaller settlement may become a neighborhood of the town if Congress recognizes this affiliation by a simple majority.
    7. A city is a large settlement that does not border the urban areas of a more populous settlement.
      1. A city must:
        1. Have a population of at least twenty thousand.
          1. If a town's population drops below twenty thousand, it is classified as a town.
      2. A city may have a village or hamlet affiliate with the city if Congress recognizes this affiliation by a simple majority.
      3. A city may have a new, bordering, distinct urban area become a neighborhood of the city if Congress recognizes this affiliation by a simple majority.
      4. If a city borders a less populous settlement, the smaller settlement may become a neighborhood of the city if Congress recognizes this affiliation by a simple majority.
    8. A neighborhood is a subdivision of a settlement.
      1. A neighborhood must be a distinct urban area of another larger settlement.
    9. In the case that a larger urban area grows and borders a smaller urban area, the smaller settlement may become one or multiple neighborhoods of the larger settlement if Congress recognizes this affiliation by a simple majority.
    10. All settlements in Lovia are managed and built by the state that they are part of.
    11. Each settlement recognized by Congress must be added to the National Settlement Order.
    12. Per the Constitution, Congress may override a decision of the state government to build new settlements by a simple majority.

Article 2 - Patriot Act (repealed)

  • Article 2 - Patriot Act[20]
    1. According to the Patriot Act, the Ministry of Finance foresees financial support for companies and organizations using patriotic terms or symbols in their name or logo.
    2. Possible words or symbols are:
      • The use of these words in the name: Lovia (or shorter forms Lovi and Lov) or pine.
      • The use of these images in the logo: pine trees, a field divided in a navy blue and red part, the Lovian flag itself or other combinations of the national colors.
      • The use of these words in the slogan: Lovia, Lovely Lovia or the Promised Land.
    3. Combinations of these symbols or words will not be additionally supported.
    4. In case these words or symbols are used in a negative way, the Ministry will -understandably- not support these companies or organizations in any way.
    5. The Ministry of Finance will create a list of the supported companies and will provide support by making publicity on its own pages. Also, the Ministry will put a template on the pages of the supported companies and organizations, making clear the Ministry supports this company or organization.

Article 3 - Economic Involvement Act

  • Article 3 - Economic Involvement Act[21]
    1. The federal government of Lovian has the right and power to execute direct economic activities; either
      1. In the form of a State-Owned Company (SOC), when having a majority of the shares.
        1. An SOC is headed and run by a branch of the involved federal ministry(ies).
        2. The goal of an SOC is to provide a certain public service to the people of Lovia.
        3. Any company providing a public service can become a SOC, by Congressional rule.
          1. When declared a public service by Congress, only the designated SOC may provide this service.
      2. In the form of a State-Involved Company (SIC), when having a minority of the shares.
        1. An SIC is run privately, but with Congress as a shareholder, represented by the involved federal ministry(ies).
        2. An SIC is a means in the execution of the governmental policies.
        3. Any company that is of importance to governmental policy may become an SIC.
    2. Only the Congress has the right and power to approve or alter the statute of a SOC or SIC, by altering the Economic Involvement Act in the Federal Law.
    3. The executing powers are responsible for their own economic decisions.
    4. A complete list of all State-Owned and State-Involved Companies and their specifications:
      1. A Lovian Energy Company, of which 60% of the shares are owned by Congress, represented by the Ministry of Energy and Resources;
        1. The current Lovian Energy Company is the company known as Ecompany.
      2. A Lovian Water Company, of which 100% of the shares are owned by Congress, represented by the Ministry of Energy and Resources;
      3. A Unified Railroad Company, of which 60% of the shares are owned by Congress, represented by the Ministry of Transportation;

Article 4 - Federal Planning Bureau Act (repealed)

  • Article 4 - Federal Planning Bureau Act [22]
  1. The Federal Planning Bureau is an official authoritative section situated on the federal level of Lovian government.
  2. Its structure is as following:
    1. The bureau works as a council;
    2. The bureau consists of three members, namely:
      1. the Prime Minister;
      2. the Minister of Commerce; and
      3. the Chairperson of the Federal Planning Bureau, who is chosen every six months by Congress and must be a Member of the Congress. [After Federal and Mid Term elections]
  3. Its powers are limited to:
    1. The proposal of economical and financial laws;
      1. Proposals which have been accepted by a special majority can go to the Second Chamber directly, without interference of the Federal Planning Bureau;
    2. The provision of advice on proposed bills concerning economical and financial matters;
      1. Advise can be obtained when:
        1. One of the members finds it necessary;
        2. Congress asks for it.
    3. The suspension of proposals on economical and financial level in order to re-calculate the consequences for Lovia and its inhabitants.
      1. The maximum suspension period is two weeks' time;
      2. The suspension can be obtained when one member of the Bureau demands it.

Article 5 - National Congressperson Order Act

  • Article 5 - National Congressperson Order Act[23]
  1. To organize the 100 members of the Congress of Lovia the National Congressperson Order (NCO) is created.
  2. The NCO will perform the following tasks:
    1. File the names of each congressperson;
    2. File the controllers of each congressperson;
    3. File the political parties of each congressperson.
  3. Each member of Congress must add the congresspeople that they control to the NCO pages.
  • Article 5.1 - Ceremonial Duties of Congresspersons
  1. Every political party has the right to select a Party Leader to preside over them in Congress.
    1. Party Leaders are elected by the members of a certain party.
    2. Party Leaders are to be the first, in tradition, to address congressional bills and address party leaders, but this is not mandatory.
  2. The leader of the majority coalition in Congress should be addressed as "Majority Leader".
  3. Any coalition leaders that do not hold a majority in Congress should be addressed as "Minority Leader".
  • Article 5.2 - Ceremonial Duties of the Speaker of the Congress
  1. The Speaker of the Congress, after being elected by Congress, in addition to the powers stated in the Constitution, also has the power to:
    1. Call congressional hearings on impeachment or other important Lovian activites.
    2. Call a special congressional session to order.
    3. Ceremonially open and close congress at the beginning and ending of a congressional term.

Article 6 - National Settlement Order Act

  • Article 6 - National Settlement Order Act[24]
  1. To organize all existing settlements, as defined in the Settlement Act, the National Settlement Order (NSO) is created.
  2. The duties of the National Settlement Order are:
    1. To list all existing settlements in Lovia.
      1. This includes all settlements, such as cities, towns, villages and hamlets.
      2. Recognized neighborhoods will be listed together with their respective settlement.
    2. To list the population and state of each settlement.
  3. All settlements recognized by Congress should be written in the Order.
    1. To recognize a settlement, the settlement must be approved by a normal majority in Congress.

Article 7 - Weights and Measures Act

  • Article 7 - Weights and Measures Act [25]
  1. The primary and official system of measurement used in Lovia is the International System of Units, which may be referred to as the metric system.
    1. All information provided by the government shall, where relevant, use SI units.
      1. Where convenient, SI units may be prefixed with the appropriate SI prefix.
      2. The sole exception is that degrees Celsius shall be used for the measurement of temperature, rather than degrees Kelvin.
    2. The secondary system is the imperial system as used in the United States of America.
      1. Information provided by the government should, if possible, provide the imperial equivalent of any SI units used.
    3. Any purveyor of goods bears responsibility for providing information in the metric system associated with the goods being traded.
      1. The level of precision of measurement shall be left to the discretion of the purveyor, as long as it is not so precise as to hinder the purchaser, nor so imprecise as to deceive.
      2. Where possible and legible, the imperial equivalent of the metric units should also be provided on the goods being traded.
  2. Mathematical punctuation:
    1. The period is used as a decimal mark to indicate the radix point.
    2. The comma may optionally be used to separate digits into groups of three.

Article 8 - Census Act

  • Article 8 - Census Act [26]
  1. The census is defined as a yearly survey of every household in the Kingdom of Lovia.
    1. Censuses are carried out by a Demographic Center in each state, under the supervision of the Governor.
      1. Congress must send federal inspectors to each Demographic Center to ensure that data collection is being done correctly and to a high standard, and maintaining high statistical reliability.
      2. If there is concern about the census, Congress may choose by a simple majority to order any of all of the Centers to repeat the census.
      3. In extreme cases, Congress may nominate another individual to take over the supervisory role of the Governor.
    2. The data collected must include the following:
      1. Total population by district, neighborhood, hamlet, village, town and city.
      2. Population by ethnic background.
      3. Population by mother language.
      4. Population by religion.
    3. Individual Centers may also choose to collect some or all of the following data:
      1. Population by size of household.
      2. Population by age.
      3. Population by marital status.
      4. Population by country of birth.
      5. Data concerning the possessions of the population, e.g. car or house ownership.
      6. Population by sector of employment.
      7. Percentage of population unemployed or in education.
      8. Population by status of dwelling e.g. rent, full ownership, ownership with mortgage etc.
    4. The census should be carried out in the June of every year.
      1. In the case that the census is delayed in any state for more than a month without prior notice being given by the Governor or Congress, any citizen may take over the supervisory role of the Governor, or request Congress to nominate an individual for this role.
      2. Censuses may also be carried out at other times at the request of Congress, or if a Governor wishes to gather more up-to-date information on their individual state.

Article 9 - Honours Act

  • Article 9 - Honours Act [27]
  1. This Act makes provision for the creation of two bodies, recognized by the Lovian Government and sponsored by the monarch.
    1. The Order of the White Pine.
    2. The Royal Academy for the Sciences and Humanities.
  2. The Order of the White Pine (OWP) consists of Lovians who have rendered service to the nation, either by bravery, work or other means, and is headed by the Grand Master of the Order, who is appointed by the monarch.
    1. The OWP may be awarded to no more than 20 individuals every year.
      1. Any inhabitant of Lovia may nominate an individual for the award.
      2. The decision as to which individuals will receive the award will be made by Congress, and confirmed by the monarch.
      3. The insignia will be awarded by the monarch and Prime Minister on the 21st of June every year, at the Royal Palace.
    2. The insignia of the Order consists of a circular badge struck with the image of a pine tree upon the obverse and the date on the reverse, suspended on a white ribbon.
    3. Any member of the Order has the right to use the initials OWP after their name.
  3. The Royal Academy for the Sciences and Humanities consists of academics who have made a significant contribution to their field, and is headed by the Rector of Blackburn University.
    1. The purpose of the Academy is to fund scientific research and advances, and to create a forum for academic discussion in Lovia.
    2. Prospective members must possess a postgraduate academic degree awarded by the Blackburn University.
    3. New members are created in the following way:
      1. Candidates may be proposed by any member of Congress under the guidance of the Rector of Blackburn Univerity.
      2. The members of the the Academy will then vote, on the 1st of June each year, to decide which of the shortlisted candidates to admit.
      3. The new members will then be inducted by the Rector.
    4. Members of the Academy have the right to use the initials MRA (Member of the Royal Academy) after their name.

Article 10 - Elections Regulations Act

  • Article 10 - Elections Regulations Act [28]
  1. Any citizen wishing to exercise their constitutional right to vote must file registration for voting with the State Government.
    1. Registration must be filed at least two weeks before an election is held.
  2. Proven violation of Article 2.3.1.2. of the Constitution is a felony, punishable by a minimum of a 10,000 dollar fine.
    1. The Supreme Court may prescribe a greater punishment depending on the severity of the crime.
  3. The voting rights of citizens can be removed by way of a Supreme Court order if they are deemed unfit to exercise those rights.
  4. Electioneering is allowed, but only 30 meters or more away from the location where a voter casts a ballot.
    1. Breaking this law once leads to a 1000 dollar fine. Breaking it more than once leads to a minimum prison sentence of three days and a 3000 dollar fine.
      1. The Supreme Court may prescribe a greater punishment depending on the severity of the crime.

Article 11 - Referendum Act

  • Article 11 - Referendum Act [29]
  1. All registered Lovian citizens, aged 18 or over, may vote in any nation-wide referendum ordered by Congress.
  2. A referendum taking place is semi-binding to what the majority of the voters on the proposal indicated as their preference.
  3. Each referendum should contain two options that can be voted on by any voter.
    1. The option that receives the simple majority of the vote or more will become the option acted upon by Congress and the Federal Government, making appropriate changes.
      1. For a referendum to become semi-binding, an option must receive at least a simple majority of the votes.
        1. If no option is able to receive a simple majority of the vote after the first vote, the least popular option will be dropped and another vote held at a later date to settle the issue. This must occur repeatedly until an option receives a simple majority of the vote.
      2. The first round of voting takes place in Forum:Referendum and has a legal duration of at least one week, and two weeks at most.
      3. If a second round of voting is needed, it too takes place in Forum:Referendum and has a legal duration of at least one week, and two weeks at most.
  4. Voter turnout, the total amount of correctly casted ballots, must be at least one third of the total franchise for a referendum's result to be semi-binding.
  5. A referendum can only be issued by the Lovian Congress, following a simple majority in favor of any proposal to hold one.
  6. All referendums passed by Congress and their recorded results are added to a list of "Approved Referendums".

Article 12 - Financial Outline Act

  • Article 12 - Financial Outline Act [30]
  1. The expenditures and revenue of the Government of Lovia are managed by a budget.
    1. Expenditures are the outflow of money from the Government, spent in order to maintain the programs and organs of government and support the nation of Lovia and its interests.
    2. Revenue is the inflow of money into the Government, collected in order to pay for expenditures.
      1. Revenue includes taxes and tariffs, outlined in the Taxation Act, and any income generated by a program or organ of the Government.
  2. On April 1 of each calendar year, a budget passed by Congress shall go into effect.
    1. Such a budget must be passed by a normal majority in Congress during the months of February or March of the same calendar year.
    2. After April 1 and before December 31 of the same calendar year, all citizens eligible for taxation should outline and pay their taxes to the Government.
      1. Citizens who do not complete this procedure may be prosecuted for tax evasion by the Ministry of Justice.
    3. Congress may modify the expenditures of the budget by a normal majority after April 1 to accommodate any unforeseen changes, but not the revenue.
    4. In the event that no budget is passed by Congress, the budget from the previous year should be extended proportionally for the amount of extra time it is being used until a new budget is passed by Congress.
      1. In this case, citizens should file and pay their taxes once the newer budget is passed. If they have already filed and paid their taxes for the old budget, a refund will be given once the citizen pays their taxes for the newer budget.
  3. A budget must include the following items:
    1. A setting of tax and tariff rates for each tax and tariff explained in the Taxation Act, which may or may not be variable depending on the income or profit of the paying entity.
    2. A setting of expenditures made by the government.
      1. Expenditures must meet the necessary costs for the upkeep of all government programs and organs and all other non-discretionary spending.
    3. An outline of income from non-tax or tariff sources.
  4. A budget made by the Government should have its revenue be equal to or greater than the total expenditures made by the Government.
    1. This provision may be ignored in times of national crisis.
    2. When the federal budget is facing a deficit, the state must borrow money on the financial market.
    3. When the federal budget has a surplus, it should be used to pay off the country's debt.
      1. Spending the surplus on new policy can only be done if the new policy is taken up in the budget, lowering the surplus.
      2. If there is no national debt, the surplus should either be converted to new policy or saved in a reserve fund.
  5. The Ministry of Finance is responsible for heading the creation and enforcement of a national budget.
    1. The Ministry should work alongside Congress, the other Ministries, and the rest of the Government to formulate a budget each year.
  6. The Government must not overfund or underfund any program or organ of the government within its budget.

Article 13 - Taxation Act

  • Article 13.1 - Taxation Regulation [31]
    1. In accordance with the Financial Outline Act, Congress should set tax levies in a federal budget in February or March for the budget of the fiscal year starting on April 1.
      1. A normal majority is required to set tax levy amounts.
      2. The tax levies may be reset to a different rate at any time in February or March.
      3. Congress may not change the levies after April 1.
    2. A proposal of set levies must fulfill one of the following aims:
      1. The aim of filling a budget that has been drawn up by the Ministry of Finance; or,
      2. The aim of filling a budget that has been drawn up by the Ministry of Finance and paying off debt accumulated by the government.
    3. States may set and change levies of different taxes on a State level. These taxes are additional on top of taxes set by Congress.
      1. Governors may set tax levies to raise money for use by the State governments, these taxes must be set with one of the following aims. The aim of funding State projects that are beneficial to the prosperity of the State or the aim of funding State projects that are beneficial to the prosperity of the State and paying off debt accumulated by the State government.
      2. Congress may overturn the levies set by the Governor by voting with a normal majority.
        1. Should Congress overturn levies set by the Governor, then the Governor may not set new levies for four weeks and current levies in the state are set to flat 0% rates.
    4. The Ministry of Finance is responsible for filing and collecting taxes.
      1. The Ministry of Finance must create documents that shall be used by government and individuals for filing taxes.
        1. These documents must be simple, easy to understand and must not be misleading, there must also be a way to trace who filed the taxes on the documents.
      2. The Ministry of Finance files taxes for all individuals or corporations unless otherwise stated.
        1. In cases where the Ministry files taxes so that an individual or corporation ends up paying more tax than due, they are given an exemption in the next tax year equivalent to the over taxation. In cases where the Ministry files taxes so that an individual or corporation ends up paying less tax than due, the Ministry may request but may not force the individual or corporation to pay the difference on top of taxes in the next tax year.
        2. In cases where an individual or corporation files their taxes so that they end up paying more tax than due, they may not request reparations or an exemption. In cases where an individual or corporation files taxes so that an individual or corporation ends up paying less tax than due, the Ministry may force the individual or corporation to pay the difference on top of taxes in the next tax year.
      3. The Ministry of Finance must create a department for collecting taxes.
        1. Those employed by the Ministry of Finance to this department are considered tax collectors.
        2. Tax collectors are responsible for filing taxes
        3. Tax collectors may collect taxes electronically with permission of the tax payer, they may also collect them from their bank account with the permission of the tax payer and they may also collect it in person from the tax payer with their permission.
        4. Tax collectors are the enforcers of taxation within Lovia. They are given the right to temporarily seize property of tax evaders, disallow individuals or individuals of corporations to leave the country, revoke a citizens passport, use force to detain tax evaders and arrest tax evaders.
        5. In all cases the Ministry of Defence must keep up to date with the actions of tax collectors and co-operate in enforcing their rights and must actively assist the Ministry of Finance in the detainment and arrest of tax evaders until they are brought before court.
    5. An illegality is committed if any of the following occur:
      1. A government official fails to correctly collect or file taxes due to negligence.
      2. An individual fails to correctly file taxes with the intent of reducing the amount of tax paid.
      3. Illegalities can be punished by imprisonment for up to 5 years, by a fine set at a reasonable amount or by the confiscation of property as the judge sees fit. Preference should be shown towards a fine as punishment.
  • Article 13.2 - Income Tax
    1. Every individual of 18 years of age or older must pay Income Tax should they be eligible as defined by law to do so. To be eligible to pay Income Tax and an individual must do one of the following.
      1. Be earning income as defined below and must have resided within Lovia's national borders during the tax year.
      2. Be a Lovian citizen earning income as defined below and must be earning income from an individual or corporation which resides within Lovia's national borders.
        1. In this case only the income gained from the individual or corporation that resides within Lovia's national borders is eligible for tax.
    2. Income is the sum total of the following.
      1. Wage and salaries.
        1. Wages, salaries and tips recieved by an individual for performing a service for another individual or entity or from another individual or corporation they are employee of, minus any wages, salaries or tips that an individual has given to another individual for being an employee of the concerned individual.
      2. Pensions.
        1. Pensions or annuity payments recieved by an individual from another individual or corporation minus any pensions or annuity payments that an individual has given to another individual. Pensions and annuity payments are fixed payments over a specified or unspecified period of time.
      3. Capital gains.
        1. Capital gains received by an individual from another individual or corporation. Capital gains are the profits gained by buying and then selling property, shares or bonds.
      4. Lump sums.
        1. Lump sums received by an individual from another individual or corporation, minus any lump sums that an individual has given to another individual. Lump sums are single payments of money.
      5. Rental income.
        1. rental income recieved by an individual from another individual or corporation, minus any rent that an individual has given to another individual. Rental income is when a payment is made for the temporary use of a good, service or property owned by another individual.
      6. Dividends.
        1. dividends recieved by an individual from a corporation. Dividends are payments made by a corporation to its shareholder members.
    3. Income Tax required to be paid is calculated by taking the concerned individuals income and levying a set percentage which goes to the Ministry of Finance.
      1. An exemption from this levy may be set, a next number of Lovian Dollars of income may have a set percentage levied and this may be done multiple times. All other income after these bands has a set percent levied.
    4. Income Tax must be paid every year on the 1st of April.
      1. Unless otherwise requested, the Ministry of Finance will manage the payment of Income Tax for individuals however individuals residing within Lovia have the right to request that they be allowed to manage the payment of their Income Tax.
      2. The Ministry of Finance may not refuse this request and must supply the individual with the documentation to file their own taxes.
    5. An illegality is committed if any of the following occurs:
      1. An individual distributes income to others for the main purpose of reducing the amount of tax paid.
      2. An individual evades or otherwise fails to pay said taxes.
      3. Illegalities can be punished by imprisonment for up to 5 years, by a fine set at a reasonable amount or by the confiscation of property as the judge sees fit. Preference should be shown towards a fine as punishment.
  • Article 13.3 - Property Tax
    1. Every individual or corporation who owns property or land as defined by law within Lovia must pay Property Tax should they be eligible as defined by law to do so. To be eligible to pay Property Tax an individual or corporation must do one of the following.
      1. Own property or land within Lovia's national borders.
    2. Property is the combination of land and an improvement that has been built upon said land.
      1. To avoid confusion property is measured in square metres by taking the distance between the furthest points along the width of the improvement and multiplying them by the distance between the furthest points along the length of the improvement.
      2. Property is considered land if the improvements width and length are each no larger than 2 meters in size.
    3. Land is land that has not had an improvement built upon it.
      1. To avoid confusion land is measured in square metres.
    4. Property Tax on property required to be paid is calculated by taking the concerned individual or corporations measured property and levying a set amount which goes to the Ministry of Finance depending on the amount of measured property owned.
      1. An exemption from this levy may be set. All other property has a set levy of Lovian cents per square metre set.
        1. Unless the property is under the jurisdiction of the National Park Service, National Monument Service or is Federal or State property in which case all other property has a different levy of Lovian cents per square metre set.
    5. Property Tax on land require to be paid is calculated by taking the concerned individual or corporations measured land and levying a set amount which goes to the Ministry of Finance depending on the amount of measured property owned.
      1. An exemption from this levy may be set. All other land has a set levy of Lovian cents per square metre set.
        1. Unless the land is under the jurisdiction of the National Park Service, National Monument Service, is Federal or State property or is being used for agricultural purposes, in which case all other land has a different levy of Lovians cents per square metre set.
    6. Property Tax must be paid every year on the 1st of April.
      1. Unless otherwise requested, the Ministry of Finance will manage the payment of Property Tax for individuals and corporations however individuals and corporations based in Lovia have the right to request that they be allowed to manage the payment of their Property Tax.
      2. The Ministry of Finance may not refuse this request and must supply the individual or corporation with the documentation to file their own taxes.
    7. An illegality is committed if any of the following occur:
      1. An individual or corporation evades or otherwise fails to pay said taxes.
      2. Illegalities can be punished by imprisonment for up to 5 years, by a fine set at a reasonable amount or by the confiscation of property as the judge sees fit. Preference should be shown towards confiscation of property as punishment.
  • Article 13.4 - Imported Sales Tax
    1. Every individual or corporation which operates within Lovia's national borders must pay Imported Sales Tax should they be defined by law as eligible to do so. To be eligible to pay Imported Sales Tax an individual or corporation must do one of the following.
      1. Have brought goods from outside Lovia's national borders into Lovia's national borders.
      2. Not be a citizen or be based outside Lovia's national borders.
    2. Individuals or corporations who have brought goods brought from outside Lovia's national borders into Lovia's national borders must register the goods with customs officers.
    3. Imported Sales Tax is required to be paid on all goods when they are first sold within Lovia's national borders after having been harvested or manufactured outside of them and all services when they are paid for within Lovia's national borders.
    4. Worth is the amount of Lovian Dollars the good or service is sold for.
    5. Imported Sales Tax required to be paid is calculated by taking the worth of the imported goods when sold and levying a set percentage which goes to the Ministry of Finance.
      1. all worth has an exclusive percentage levy set.
    6. Imported Sales Tax must be paid every year on the 1st of April.
      1. Unless otherwise requested, the Ministry of Finance will manage the payment of Imported Sales Tax for individuals however individuals or corporations residing within Lovia have the right to request that they be allowed to manage the payment of their Imported Sales Tax.
      2. The Ministry of Finance may not refuse this request and must supply the individual or corporation with the documentation to file their own taxes.
    7. An illegality is committed if any of the following occur:
      1. An individual or corporation evades or otherwise fails to pay said taxes.
      2. Failure to register all the goods that have been imported due to either intent or by negligence.
      3. Illegalities can be punished by imprisonment for up to 5 years, by a fine set at a reasonable amount or by the confiscation of property as the judge sees fit. Preference should be shown towards a fine as punishment.

Article 14 - Research Funding Act

  • Article 14 - Research Funding Act [32]
    1. This act provides for government funding for scientific research in Lovia. Funding will be regulated by a central body, the Lovian Research Council, which is funded by the federal government.
      1. The federal government will commit 3% of annual tax revenue to providing the Council with funds.
      2. The Council will provide records of expenditure to the Minister of Finance, who will audit them in consultation with the Minister of Science, to ensure the funding is wisely allocated.
        1. Ministers must carry out the audit in an entirely neutral way, to ensure the objectivity of all research is not threatened.
      3. If there are concerns regarding allocations of funding, Congress should vote on whether a recipient should lose funding.
        1. Prior to voting, independent advisors should be summoned to Congress to provide expert opinions to MOTCs on the issue.
    2. The Council is composed of between 5 and 20 members.
      1. The Council is headed by a chief executive officer (CEO) appointed by the Minister of Science.
        1. The CEO should be a globally respected researcher in their field, with multiple publications in leading journals.
      2. A Chief Financial Officer (CFO) is also appointed by the Minister of Science.
      3. Between 5 and 20 other members should be appointed by the Minister and the CEO, in consultation with other council members. At least one member should be appointed with expertise in each of the following areas:
        1. biology, biochemistry and biotechnology
        2. engineering, physical sciences and mathematics
        3. medical research
        4. social sciences, arts and humanities
        5. environmental sciences
    3. Both government-owned and privately-owned organizations may apply to the Council for funding.
      1. Applications should be sent to the CEO by the 31st of December of each year, in order to receive funding at the start of the financial year in April.
        1. Applications should specify the amount of funding required, the qualifications, experience and achievements of the applicants, and several supporting references.
      2. Funding to privately-owned organizations will be in the form of a purchase of a share in the organization and its profits. The share will be considered to be owned by the government, but administered by the Council.
      3. The following criteria should be considered before deciding to provide a grant:
        1. The quality of the research carried out in the past by the organization, in particular if previously funded by the Council
        2. The extent to which the research is unique, i.e. will provide significant new results compared to any other research funded by the Council or ongoing elsewhere in the world.
        3. The ethical implications of the research.
        4. The likelihood that the research will:
          1. improve the lives of Lovian citizens and humanity in general.
          2. provide a boost to the Lovian economy.
          3. generate revenue for federal or state governments.
          4. Research that is scientifically interesting, but does not meet some or all above criteria, may still be worthy of funding, in particular if it has failed to obtain non-Council funding for that reason.
        5. The amount of funding already obtained by the organization.
      4. Funding applications should be assessed by the Council members with the greatest relevant expertise, and the CFO. They will then recommend to the Council if the application should be accepted, and if so, how much funding the project should receive.
      5. The CFO will draw up a budget based on the recommendations of the Council members during the first three months of the year. The budget should be approved by the Council by majority voting; if not, it should be modified and reproposed. The budget should go into effect on April 1st.
      6. Research in all areas described in 2.3. should be funded. The Council should ensure breadth in the type of projects funded.
    4. The council should devote part of its budget to funding 30 Council Scholarships for Lovian students to undertake Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degrees.
      1. Each scholarship provides funding for three years, for both research costs and a living stipend.
      2. The Ph.D. will be accredited by Blackburn University. Students will be supervised by one or more senior researchers funded by the Council
      3. Organizations may also offer their own Ph.D. scholarships, using either their own or Council funding. In the latter case, this must be agreed with the Council.
    5. The Council also has the following responsibilities:
      1. Providing advice to researchers.
      2. Organizing a conference every three months where researchers can present and discuss their research, and share their expertise with one another.
      3. Monitoring the spending of allocated grants.
      4. Arranging for researchers to share facilities, if appropriate.

Civil Law Book

Arrow right Main article: Civil legislation in Lovia.

Article 1 - Marriage Act

  • Article 1 - Marriage Act [33]
  1. Marriage is an understanding between two adult people, referred to as parties, who voluntarily agree to take up certain rights and duties.
    1. The spouses have the duty to live in harmony with each other, offering each other respect, affection, consolation, and care and treating each other in fairness.
    2. The spouses have the duty to communicate with each other and make informal agreements concerning both the personal and professional including work, the household, sex, parenting, and finances, and to verbally resolve any conflicts. Considering the possibility that the spouses cannot come to an agreement on their own terms, it is the duty of both spouses to counsel for advice from a third party.
    3. The spouses have the right to retain their autonomy within their marriage including the right to choose and perform the profession of their liking, the right to keep personal finances, and the right to individually see and meet people.
    4. The spouses share the responsibility to take care of their children or others in their custody as well as of their possessions and properties.
      1. Both spouses share the liability to all expenses made for the benefit of the spouses’ child or children, which can be proven to be essential to the well being of the child.
      2. While the spouses have the right to make any informal or formal arrangement as to whom pays what, the law can enforce the shared liability of expenses of the above-described type in the case that conflict arises and the existing arrangement is fundamentally unfair to either or both spouses.
    5. Each spouse must bear the marital burdens in accordance to his or her capital and provide the partner with vitals.
  2. Marriage can only be solemnized if all of the following conditions are met:
    1. Each of the parties is at least 18 years old, or 16 given that the parents or custodians of the less than 18-year-old party fully consent with the marriage;
    2. Each of the parties agrees with the marriage on a voluntary basis;
    3. None of the parties is already in a standing marriage under Lovian law or under similar law in the country where the marriage was carried out;
    4. The parties are not genetically related in the first or second degree ruling out marriages between parents and children, brothers and/or sisters, aunts and/or uncles, and nephews and/or nieces, and cousins.
  3. The solemnization of a marriage is carried out in public before a representative of the law.
    1. A representative of the law is the Governor of the State in which the marriage is solemnized, a person appointed by that Governor, or any person who is in public service in the federal or state government.
    2. No representative of the law may refuse to solemnize a marriage if all the legal conditions are met, unless he or she conscientiously objects to the solemnization, in which case he or she shall report his objections to a Deputy Governor or another representative of the law who must then contact the parties to arrange for solemnization to take place under his or her supervision. The government is legally bound to solemnize any marriage that conforms to the demands set forth by the law.
    3. The parties sign a marriage contract at the public solemnization agreeing to the conditions laid out by the law. The representative of the law acts as a witness and validates the contract by signing it as well.
  4. A marriage is considered terminated in each one of the following cases:
    1. If the marriage is proven to not have been legally solemnized;
    2. If one of the spouses obtains a cancellation of the marriage contract;
      1. A spouse can cancel a marriage through a lawsuit if he or she proves that the other spouse has neglected his or her duties as a spouse;
        1. In this case, the neglecting spouse can be sanctioned to provide financial support to the neglected spouse.
        2. In this case, the judge must decide upon an arrangement concerning raising the spouses’ child or children, taking into account the opinions and wishes of both spouses as well as of the children concerned.
          1. Unless one of the spouses is considered an immediate threat to the health and security of a child, every person has the right to have regular contact and communication with his or her child.
          2. Every arrangement decided upon by a judge must take into account the health, security, and happiness of the child and the spouses’ ability to provide for those.
    3. If both spouses agree upon the termination of their marriage, effectively cancelling the marriage contract in the presence of a representative of the law.
    4. Upon the death of one of the spouses, or both, but only if the remaining spouse requests the cancellation.
    5. One year after one of the spouses has been reported as missing and has not been found, but only if the remaining spouse requests the cancellation.

Article 2 - Legal Cohabitating Act

  • Article 2 - Legal Cohabitating Act [34]
    1. When two or more people live together and share the burdens of this cohabiting they can obtain a legal cohabiting contract.
      1. A legal cohabiting contract regulates the personal and financial relationship between the cohabitants.
      2. The cohabitants are completely free with respect to each other and have no personal duties.
      3. The cohabitants own all the goods they possessed before the legal cohabitant contract solely.
        1. When a claim of ownership is disputed, proof of this ownership needs to be delivered.
        2. When a dispute can not be solved due to lack of proof, the ownership is equally distributed.
      4. A legal cohabiting contract can on top comprise any of the following provisions;
        1. To make any part of the personal capital and/or future incomes common property.
        2. To agree on an alternate financial regulation if the contract is terminated.
        3. To make certain legally binding acts impossible without consent of all partners.
    2. A legal cohabiting contract can be conducted by the agreement of all concerned parties, without a government official.
      1. The contract has legal power concerning all issues up to the moment it is terminated by any concerned party.
      2. A legal cohabiting contract can be ratified by the governor on demand of any concerned party.

Article 3 - Parenthood Act

  • Article 3 - Parenthood Act [35]
    1. Biological parenthood of children inside marriage:
      1. The person who gave birth to a child is considered the mother; this is derived from the birth certificate.
      2. The male spouse of the mother, if any, is under normal conditions suspected to be the father of the child.
        1. This suspicion can be contested;
          1. By the mother within a year after the child's birth.
          2. By the man within a year after being notified of the fatherhood.
          3. By the child itself within four years after reaching the age of eighteen.
        2. This suspicion can be legally recognized by the suspected father;
          1. With consent of the mother or legal guardian if the child is younger than fifteen years old.
          2. With consent of the mother or legal guardian and the child if the child is between fifteen and eighteen.
          3. With consent of the child if the child is at least eighteen years old.
    2. Biological parenthood of children outside marriage:
      1. The person who gave birth to a child is considered the mother; this is derived from the birth certificate.
      2. The fatherhood of children outside of marriage can be recognized;
        1. With consent of the suspected father and the mother or legal guardian if the child is younger than fifteen years old.
        2. With consent of the suspected father, mother or legal guardian and the child if the child is between fifteen and eighteen.
        3. With consent of the suspected father and the child if the child is at least eighteen years old.
        4. By any interested party through a lawsuit.
    3. Legal parenthood through adoption:
      1. Adoption is a procedure in which an individual takes up parenthood of a child of which he or she is not a biological parent.
      2. Adoption gives the guardian the same rights and obligations towards the child as if the guardian was the biological parent.
      3. An adoption is only valid before the Lovian law if declared as such by court.
      4. An adoption can be performed by;
        1. Two people who are joined in marriage.
        2. Two people who have a legal cohabiting contract.
        3. An individual, whether married or not.
      5. To become a parent through adoption you must;
        1. Be socially and psychologically stabile, guaranteed through standardized tests.
        2. Be at least 20 years old and at least 10 years older than the child you want to adopt.
        3. Have permission of your partner when you are married or have a cohabiting contract.
      6. A child can only be adopted if it is younger than eighteen years old.
        1. If older than twelve, the consent of the child is needed.

Information on the laws

  1. The idea of the Charity Funds came from citizen Lars Washington. A first version of the act was written by King Dimitri I. Afterwards Lars Washington edited the proposal in the First Chamber. The law proposal passed the Second Chamber with an absolute majority.
  2. Construction
    This section is under construction.
    Edit
  3. This proposal was written by Prime Minister Yuri Medvedev and slightly adjusted in the First Chamber. It was officially accepted on March 31, 2008. Medvedev later drafted a much more complete law in 2011, which was passed on December 21, 2011.
  4. A smoking ban discussion in Congress was opened July 2, 2008, by King Dimitri I of Lovia. The 22nd of July a bill was proposed to the Congress. Voting ended August 12th, unanimously agreeing on the bill.
  5. The Alcohol Consumption Regulations Act was written and proposed by Arthur Jefferson on the 25th of November, 2009. This bill were unanimously accepted by all Provisional Congressmen and voting citizens. The act was officially accepted December 4th, 2009.
  6. The Primary Education Act was written and proposed by King Dimitri I of Lovia on the 12th of November, 2009. This bill and the Secondary Education Act were unanimously accepted by all Provisional Congressmen and voting citizens. The act was officially accepted November 16. Section 7 was amended by King Dimitri December 4, 2010 by a unanimous Congress. A total reform of the bill was drafted and proposed by Lukas Hoffmann and Oos Wes Ilava on September 16, 2013, and was approved in the Second Chamber on September 26, 2013.
  7. The Secondary Education Act was written and proposed by King Dimitri I of Lovia on the 12th of November, 2009. This bill and the Primary Education Act were unanimously accepted by all Provisional Congressmen and voting citizens. The act was officially accepted November 16. A total reform of the bill was drafted and proposed by Lukas Hoffmann and Oos Wes Ilava on September 16, 2013, and was approved in the Second Chamber on September 26, 2013.
  8. The Sports and National Team Act was originally proposed by Marcus Villanova of Walden on August 15, 2010. It was rewritten by King Dimitri I on August 22, and was moved to the Second Chamber in that form on August 30. It passed in the Second Chamber on November 13, 2010. On May 14, 2011, William Krosby of LDP proposed a revision of the bill. The revision, removing or reducing some rules deemed unnecessary, was proposed in the Second Chamber on May 16, 2011, and passed on May 27, 2011.
  9. Construction
    This section is under construction.
    Edit
  10. The Social Security Act was first drafted (by Yuri Medvedev) and voted on in the Second Chamber in February and March 2011. Due to the inactivity of the then-ruling 2011 Congress, the bills did not reach a majority. By 8 October 2011, congresspeople in the 2011 Second Congress began to discuss the bill again, and after a few modifications by William Krosby it passed in the Second Chamber on 14 October 2011.
  11. The Abortion Regulations Act was first drafted by Yuri Medvedev and voted on in the Second Chamber in September 2011. Due to disagreement over what should be passed, the bill did not reach a majority. By August 2012, members of the 2012 First Congress began to discuss the bill again, and after a few modifications by Oos Wes Ilava to make the bill slightly more conservative, it nearly did not pass in the Second Chamber, stagnating at 50% pro, just one vote short of the necessary majority. On October 20, 2012, one of the contra voting members switched their vote to pro, making the bill a law.
  12. The Educational Boards Act was drafted by Lukas Hoffmann in September 2013. It was proposed by Lukas Hoffmann and Oos Wes Ilava on September 16, 2013, and was approved in the Second Chamber on September 26, 2013.
  13. The text was written by King Dimitri I. Little changes were made and the proposal was finally accepted with an absolute majority on February 17, 2008.
  14. The Green Energy Act was written and proposed by Andy McCandless on the 26th of June, 2010. This bill was accepted by 10 out of 14 MOTCs. The act was officially accepted on July 4th, 2010.
  15. The Lovia Recycles Act was written and proposed by Justin Abrahams in May 2015 and accepted by a majority in congress on 20 May 2015.
  16. This proposal was written by Arthur Jefferson, together with the Local Police Act. It was written on March 20, 2008 and officially accepted in Second Chamber April 4. The text didn't change much in the First Chamber. As part of the 2010 State Reform, the Federal Police Act was rewritten by King Dimitri I.
  17. This proposal was written by Arthur Jefferson, together with the Federal Police Act. It was written on March 20, 2008 and officially accepted in Second Chamber April 4. The Local Police Act underwent some changes in First Chamber, mostly concerning authority matters in the proposal. The Local Police Act was repealed August 29, 2010 as part of the 2010 State Reform (Sixth Amendment).
  18. The Firearms Act was drafted by Percival Galahad in January 2011. It was approved in the Second Chamber on January 8, 2011.
  19. The Town and City Act was proposed in First Chamber April 12 by HRH King Dimitri I of Lovia. It passed both First and Second Chamber without troubles and was officially accepted April 27, 2008 with an unanimous majority. The Town and City Act was revised by King Dimitri as part of the 2010 State Reform. The Hamlet Act was originally proposed by Pierlot McCrooke as the Hamlet and Village Act the 23th of May. After it was partly rewritten by McCrooke and King Dimitri I, it was transferred to the Second Chamber May 27, 2008. It was supported by all nine Congressmen, a record breaking score. The act was officially accepted May 29. The Hamlet Act was revised August 29th by King Dimitri I as part of the 2010 State Reform. The Settlement Act was a revision of the Hamlet and Town & City Acts, and was drafted by William Krosby in the First Chamber on May 1, 2011. It was passed in the Second Chamber on May 4, 2011. A revision of the Settlement Act was drafted by William Krosby in the First Chamber on November 6, 2012. It was passed in the Second Chamber on November 20, 2012.
  20. The Patriot Act's text was written by Arthur Jefferson and stayed unchanged. It was accepted in the Second Chamber on February 17, 2008. This act is not to be confused with the United States PATRIOT Act. For more information on that act: Wikipedia. The Patriot Act was repealed November 16, 2009, by the First Provisional Congress.
  21. The Economic Involvement Act was proposed to the 2010 Congress on July 29th by Prime Minister Yuri Medvedev (CPL.nm). The bill was well received, except by the CCPL, who called it "trash." The bill moved to the Second Chamber August 19th and was voted into law September 5th. The bill was only opposed by Alexandru Latin and Oos Wes Ilava; independent Arthur Jefferson abstained.
  22. The Federal Planning Bureau Act was voted into law on January 24, 2011. Because it never became active, it was repealed on October 14, 2011.
  23. The NCO Act was suggested by Marcus Villanova, drafted by William Krosby, and passed in the Second Chamber all on May 29, 2011. The Additional articles were proposed and written by Marcus Villanova as well, and passed in June 2011.
  24. The NSO Act was drafted by Marcus Villanova in February 2012. William Krosby revised the draft, and it was approved in the Second Chamber on February 12, 2012.
  25. The Weights and Measures Act was drafted by Semyon Breyev in March 2012. After revision in April, it was approved in the Second Chamber on April 17, 2012.
  26. The Census Act was drafted by Semyon Breyev in August 2012. It was approved in the Second Chamber on September 23, 2012.
  27. The Honours Act was drafted by Semyon Breyev in April 2012. It was approved in the Second Chamber on December 23, 2012.
  28. The Elections Regulations Act was drafted by Semyon Breyev in March 2013. It was approved in the Second Chamber on March 26, 2013.
  29. The Referendum Act was drafted by Marcus Villanova and Oos Wes Ilava in May 2013. It was approved in the Second Chamber on May 25, 2013.
  30. The Financial Outline Act was drafted by William Krosby in July 2013. It was approved in the Second Chamber on August 13, 2013.
  31. The Taxation Act was drafted by Lukas Hoffmann in July 2013. It was proposed by Lukas Hoffmann and Oos Wes Ilava on July 21, 2013, and was approved in the Second Chamber on August 13, 2013.
  32. The Research Funding Act Act was drafted and proposed by Peter Blanch, the Minister of Science, in May 2015. It was approved in the Second Chamber on June 12, 2015.
  33. The Marriage Act was passed in the Second Chamber on January 1, 2011. It was modified on October 23, 2012 to incorporate what should be done if a governor refuses to solemnize a marriage. It was again modified on March 7, 2013.
  34. The Legal Cohabitating Act was passed in the Second Chamber on January 1, 2011.
  35. The Parenthood Act was passed in the Second Chamber on January 1, 2011.

See also

Seal of the First Chamber Lovia Congress Seal of the Second Chamber

Capitol - Congress - Congressional Journal - Federal Properties - First Chamber (forum) - Inauguration Day - King's Share - Library of Congress - List of political parties in Lovia - Member of the Congress - Member by Right - National Archives - Second Chamber (forum)

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